Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Stem Cells. Dec 26, 2019; 11(12): 1065-1083
Published online Dec 26, 2019. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v11.i12.1065
Figure 1
Figure 1 Schematic diagrams of the traditional two-dimensional monolayer cell culture and three-dimensional cell culture systems. A: Traditional two-dimensional monolayer cell culture; B: Three-dimensional cell culture systems; C: The structure of three-dimensional spheroid with different zones of cells with the models of oxygenation, nutrition, and CO2 removal. Three-dimensional spheroid from inside to outside. The regions are necrotic zone (innermost), quiescent viable cell zone (middle), and proliferating zone (outermost).
Figure 2
Figure 2 Different techniques used for three-dimensional cell cultures. These techniques include: A: Liquid overlay; B: Hanging drop; C: Hydrogel embedding; D: Spinner flask bioreactor; E: Scaffold; F: Three-dimensional bioprinting.
Figure 3
Figure 3 Potential applications of three-dimensional cell culture systems. The invention of three-dimensional cell culture systems could be applied into various aspects, for instance anticancer drug screening, tissue engineering, cancer biology, and clinical uses.