Opinion Review
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Gastroenterol. Jul 14, 2020; 26(26): 3712-3719
Published online Jul 14, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i26.3712
Table 1 Therapies empirically used to treat functional gastrointestinal symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease requiring validation in future clinical trials
TreatmentGastrointestinal symptom(s) targeted
Low FODMAPs dietBloating, visceral pain, diarrhoea
Anti-motility agents (e.g., loperamide, ondansetron)Exaggerated gastro-colic reflex, faecal urgency, diarrhoea, faecal incontinence
Laxatives and pro-motility agents (e.g., prucalopride, linaclotide)Slow colonic transit, constipation
AntispasmodicsVisceral pain, bloating
Gut-brain neuromodulators (e.g., antidepressants)Visceral pain, faecal urgency, diarrhoea
ProbioticsBloating, altered bowel habit
Pelvic floor biofeedbackEvacuatory dysfunction, faecal urgency, faecal incontinence
Psychological interventions (e.g., hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioural therapy)Visceral pain, bloating, altered bowel habit, non-colonic symptoms