Basic Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Gastroenterol. Jun 21, 2019; 25(23): 2911-2923
Published online Jun 21, 2019. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i23.2911
Table 1 Brain nuclei and neurotransmitters/hormones involved in restraint water-immersion stress
NucleusNeurotransmitter or hormone
Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus[10]Acetylcholine[19]
Nucleus ambiguous[10]Norepinephrine[13]
Nucleus of solitary tract[10]Oxytocin[14]
Paraventricular nucleus[10]Arginine vasopressin[14,15]
Supraoptic nucleus[11]Hydrogen peroxide[20]
Table 2 Top ten most enriched pathways indentified by an ingenuity pathway analysis of the dysregulated proteins according to –log (P-value)
Pathway name-log (P-value)Enriched dysregulated proteins
NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response3.69GSTM2, DNAJB1, GSK3B, CBR1, DNAJC11
EIF2 signalling3.42PTBP1, RPL18A, RPL3, EIF2S3, GSK3B
Fatty acid β-oxidation I2.44ACSL5, HSD17B4
Cysteine biosynthesis/homocysteine degradation2.25CBS/CBSL
Caveolar-mediated endocytosis signalling1.77ARCN1, ITGA6
Melatonin signalling1.77CAMK2D, ARAF
Integrin signalling1.63WASL, ITGA6, GSK3B
Protein kinase A signalling1.62CAMK2D, PTPN9, GSK3B, CDC16
Prostanoid biosynthesis1.6PTGDS
Reelin signalling in neurons1.56ITGA6, GSK3B