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Copyright ©2012 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Aug 7, 2012; 18(29): 3775-3781
Published online Aug 7, 2012. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i29.3775
Table 1 Overview about liver aminotransferases alanine and aspartate
Catalyzes the reversible transamination1 between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate: L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate
ALT has both degradative and biosynthetic roles in the glutamate cycling
ALT participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting with precursors transported from skeletal muscles
ALT is present in tissues including liver, kidney, heart, and skeletal muscle.
Catalyzes the reversible transamination between L-aspartate and 2-oxoglutarate to form oxaloacetate and glutamate: L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate
Cytosolic AST (GOT 1 catalyzes the reversible reaction of oxaloacetate and glutamate to form aspartate and 2-oxoglutarate (alpha-ketoglutarate)
AST has two isoforms: cytoplasmatic and mitochondrial
Table 2 Candidate gene list (in bold) and 50 predicted genes by systems biology
Symbol DescriptionScore
HNF4AHepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 5024]66.77
IDH2Isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (NADP+), mitochondrial [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 5383]62.04
IDH1Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (NADP+), soluble [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 5382]61.96
GPTGlutamic-pyruvate transaminase (alanine aminotransferase) [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 4552]58.97
GOT1Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1, soluble (aspartate aminotransferase 1) [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 4432]54.78
GOT2Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, mitochondrial (aspartate aminotransferase 2) [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 4433]54.48
IDH3AIsocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (NAD+) alpha [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 5384]2.68
IDH3GIsocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (NAD+) gamma [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 5386]2.6
IDH3BIsocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (NAD+) beta [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 5385]2.56
ALAS1Aminolevulinate, delta-, synthase 1 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 396]1.57
GOT1L1Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1-like 1 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 28487]1.35
ACCSL1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase homolog (Arabidopsis)(non-functional)-like [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 34391]1.14
GPT2Glutamic pyruvate transaminase (alanine aminotransferase) 2 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 18062]1.03
ACCS1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase homolog (Arabidopsis)(non-functional) [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 23989]0.98
TATTyrosine aminotransferase [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 11573]0.93
AADATAminoadipate aminotransferase [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 17929]0.88
CCBL1Cysteine conjugate-beta lyase, cytoplasmic [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 1564]0.87
CCBL2Cysteine conjugate-beta lyase 2 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 33238]0.83
SPTLC3Serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 3 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 16253]0.82
ALAS2Aminolevulinate, delta-, synthase 2 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 397]0.8
SPTLC2Serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 2 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 11278]0.79
SPTLC1Serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 11277]0.75
PCPyruvate carboxylase [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 8636]0.69
SLC2A4Solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 4 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 11009]0.69
GCATGlycine C-acetyltransferase [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 4188]0.66
RCAN1Regulator of calcineurin 1 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 3040]0.56
SEPSECSSep (O-phosphoserine) tRNA: Sec (selenocysteine) tRNA synthase [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 30605]0.56
GLUD1Glutamate dehydrogenase 1 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 4335]0.55
SHMT2Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (mitochondrial) [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 10852]0.54
CTHCystathionase (cystathionine gamma-lyase) [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 2501]0.52
AGXT2L2Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2-like 2 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 28249]0.49
RCAN2Regulator of calcineurin 2 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 3041]0.49
AGXTAlanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 341]0.48
GLDCGlycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 4313]0.48
GADL1Glutamate decarboxylase-like 1 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 27949]0.47
PDXDC1Pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain containing 1 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 28995]0.45
AGXT2Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 14412]0.45
GAD2Glutamate decarboxylase 2 (pancreatic islets and brain, 65 kDa) [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 4093]0.43
SCLYSelenocysteine lyase [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 18161]0.43
AGXT2L1Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2-like 1 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 14404]0.42
ABAT4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 23]0.42
DDCDopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 2719]0.42
KYNUKynureninase [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 6469]0.41
OATOrnithine aminotransferase [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 8091]0.4
SHMT1Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (soluble) [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 10850]0.4
PSAT1Phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 19129]0.39
GAD1Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (brain, 67 kDa) [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 4092]0.38
CSADCysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 18966]0.38
NFS1NFS1 nitrogen fixation 1 homolog (S. cerevisiae) [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 15910]0.38
ACO1Aconitase 1, soluble [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 117]0.37
SGPL1Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 10817]0.36
HDCHistidine decarboxylase [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 4855]0.36
MOCOSMolybdenum cofactor sulfurase [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 18234]0.31
ZNHIT3Zinc finger, HIT-type containing 3 [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 12309]0.3
COQ9Coenzyme Q9 homolog (S. cerevisiae) [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 25302]0.3
ESRRAEstrogen-related receptor alpha [source: HGNC symbol; Acc: 3471]0.3
Table 3 Gene ontology annotation of predicted biological process
Gene ontology annotationQ valueGenes in networkGenes in genome
Transaminase activity4.86E-311416
Transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups6.17E-301418
Mitochondrial matrix3.10E-1516220
Cellular amino acid catabolic process7.40E-151277
Amine catabolic process1.13E-141281
Dicarboxylic acid metabolic process1.75E-14924
Cellular amino acid biosynthetic process5.90E-131054
Carboxylic acid catabolic process2.55E-1212131
2-oxoglutarate metabolic process2.55E-12713
Organic acid catabolic process2.55E-1212131
Amine biosynthetic process8.11E-121072
Glutamate metabolic process1.08E-10610
Carboxylic acid biosynthetic process4.53E-1011154
Organic acid biosynthetic process4.53E-1011154
Small molecule catabolic process4.87E-1012211
Small molecule biosynthetic process2.21E-912241
Cofactor metabolic process2.24E-810163
Vitamin B6 binding9.53E-8512
Glutamine family amino acid metabolic process9.53E-8627
Cellular aromatic compound metabolic process9.53E-89135
Pyridoxal phosphate binding9.53E-8512
Cofactor binding6.48E-7769
Aromatic amino acid family catabolic process1.24E-6519
Coenzyme metabolic process1.46E-68126
Aromatic compound catabolic process3.14E-6523
Aromatic amino acid family metabolic process3.14E-6523
Vitamin binding8.74E-6528
Indolalkylamine catabolic process1.08E-5411
Indole-containing compound catabolic process1.08E-5411
Tryptophan catabolic process1.08E-5411
Tryptophan metabolic process1.48E-5412
Indolalkylamine metabolic process1.48E-5412
Indole-containing compound metabolic process1.48E-5412
Cellular biogenic amine catabolic process3.93E-5415
Serine family amino acid metabolic process5.07E-5416
Acetyl-CoA catabolic process1.23E-4420
Tricarboxylic acid cycle1.23E-4420
Coenzyme catabolic process1.23E-4420
Cofactor catabolic process3.67E-4426
Aerobic respiration4.88E-4428
Cellular biogenic amine metabolic process6.98E-4571
Lyase activity8.37E-4574
Acetyl-CoA metabolic process1.01E-3434
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups1.41E-3583
Aspartate family amino acid catabolic process3.67E-3315
Generation of a signal involved in cell-cell signaling3.67E-36178
Signal release3.67E-36178
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups3.67E-35103
Sulfur amino acid metabolic process4.26E-3316
Neurotransmitter secretion5.20E-3453
Hexose biosynthetic process5.50E-3454
Water-soluble vitamin metabolic process6.24E-3456
Monosaccharide biosynthetic process1.04E-2464
Pteridine-containing compound metabolic process1.05E-2322
Neurotransmitter transport1.14E-2466
Carbon-carbon lyase activity1.48E-2325
Aspartate family amino acid metabolic process1.48E-2325
Regulation of neurotransmitter levels1.60E-2473
Sphingolipid metabolic process1.82E-2476
Alcohol biosynthetic process1.82E-2476
Pigment biosynthetic process1.96E-2328
Membrane lipid metabolic process2.35E-2482
Sphingolipid biosynthetic process2.35E-2330
Cofactor biosynthetic process2.53E-2484
Membrane lipid biosynthetic process2.77E-2332
Cellular modified amino acid metabolic process2.81E-2487
Cellular carbohydrate biosynthetic process4.06E-2496
Pigment metabolic process4.80E-2339
Vitamin metabolic process4.80E-24101