Topic Highlight
Copyright ©2011 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Jun 14, 2011; 17(22): 2740-2747
Published online Jun 14, 2011. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i22.2740
Table 1 Studies of the use of nicotine in ulcerative colitis
Ref.FormulationDose (mg)nType of diseaseStudyComparatorResults
[44]Nicotine gum41Active UCUncontrolled--100%
Perera et al[45]Nicotine gum411Active UCUncontrolled--27%
Watson et al[46]Nicotine gum--1Active UCUncontrolled--100%
Srivastava et al[47]Transdermal nicotine2218Active UCUncontrolled--78%
Guslandi et al[48]Transdermal nicotine153Active UCUncontrolled--66%
Guslandi et al[49]Transdermal nicotine1510Active UCUncontrolled--70%
Lashner et al[50]Nicotine gum207Active UCCross-overPlaceboNI 43% vs PL 0%
Pullan et al[51]Transdermal nicotine15-2572Active UCControlledPlaceboNI 49% vs PL 24%
Sandborn et al[52]Transdermal nicotine11-2464Active UCControlledPlaceboNI 39% vs PL 9%
Thomas et al[53]Transdermal nicotine15-2561Active UCControlledPrednisoneNI 20% vs PR 45%
Guslandi et al[54]Transdermal nicotine1538UC in remissionControlledPrednisoneNI 71% vs PR 88%
Thomas et al[55]Transdermal nicotine1580UC in remissionControlledPlaceboNI 45% vs PL 50%
Green et al[57]Nicotine enemas422Active UCUncontrolled--73%
Sandborn et al[58]Nicotine enemas67Active UCUncontrolled--71%
Table 2 Possible mechanisms in the pathogenic interactions of smoking and inflammatory bowel disease[64]
Modulation of cellular and humoral immunity
Changes in cytokine levels
Modification of eicosanoid-mediated inflammation
Reduction of antioxidant capacity, production of oxygen free radicals
Release of endogenous glucocorticoids
Colonic mucus effects
Alteration of mucosal blood flow
Pro-thrombotic effects and promotion of microvascular thrombosis
Alteration of gut permeability
Modification of gut motility