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World J Gastroenterol. Feb 28, 2022; 28(8): 794-810
Published online Feb 28, 2022. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v28.i8.794
Mixed neuroendocrine–nonneuroendocrine neoplasms of the gastrointestinal system: An update
Gulsum Ozlem Elpek
Gulsum Ozlem Elpek, Pathology, Akdeniz University Medical School, Antalya 07070, Turkey
Author contributions: Elpek GO performed the design of the article, obtained, analyzed and interpreted the data, and wrote the article.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All authors have no any conflicts of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Gulsum Ozlem Elpek, MD, Professor, Pathology , Akdeniz University Medical School, Dumlupınar bulvarı, Antalya 07070, Turkey.
Received: October 14, 2021
Peer-review started: October 14, 2021
First decision: December 3, 2021
Revised: December 15, 2021
Accepted: January 22, 2022
Article in press: January 22, 2022
Published online: February 28, 2022
Core Tip

Core Tip: Mixed neuroendocrine-nonneuroendocrine neoplasms of the gastrointestinal system are a rare heterogeneous group of tumors that present many challenges in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Current data indicate that they are more frequent in the colon and rectum and that most of them consist of aggressive tumors that have poor prognoses in older men. Their correct diagnosis with the proposed criteria and the separate assessment of the grade of each component are crucial in terms of determining the treatment. Although studies have indicated a monoclonal origin, further studies are needed to determine whether these molecular changes could become treatment targets.