Published online Jan 21, 2022. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v28.i3.310
Peer-review started: September 9, 2021
First decision: October 16, 2021
Revised: October 19, 2021
Accepted: January 6, 2022
Article in press: January 6, 2022
Published online: January 21, 2022
Core Tip: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is projected to emerge as the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Demographic factors, genetic predisposition and behavioral parameters have been identified as independent risk factors for NAFLD-related HCC, which can arise even in the absence of cirrhosis. Currently, the most challenging issue for the scientific community worldwide is the identification of the pre-cirrhotic NAFLD patients who have increased risk for HCC. Noteworthy, the central concept for the surveillance policies in the near future should be the identification, via an individual, risk-assessment based precision screening of high-risk NAFLD patients, cirrhotic or not.