Systematic Reviews
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Nov 28, 2021; 27(44): 7716-7733
Published online Nov 28, 2021. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i44.7716
Proton pump inhibitors and colorectal cancer: A systematic review
Agastya Patel, Piotr Spychalski, Magdalena Antoszewska, Jaroslaw Regula, Jarek Kobiela
Agastya Patel, Piotr Spychalski, Jarek Kobiela, Department of General, Endocrine and Transplant Surgery, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk 80-210, Poland
Magdalena Antoszewska, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk 80-210, Poland
Jaroslaw Regula, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Oncology, Center of Postgraduate Medical Education, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Warsaw 01-813, Poland
Author contributions: Patel A, Spychalski P, Regula J and Kobiela J contributed to the conceptualization; Patel A, Spychalski P and Antoszewska M curated data; Patel A, Spychalski P and Kobiela J contributed to the methodology, visualization and writing the original draft; Spychalski P, Antoszewska M, Regula J and Kobiela J contributed to the validation; Spychalski P, Regula J and Kobiela J contributed to the supervision; Kobiela J administrated the project; and all authors contributed to the formal analysis, investigation, writing the review and editing.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors declare that they have no competing interests.
PRISMA 2009 Checklist statement: The authors have read the PRISMA 2009 checklist, and the manuscript was prepared in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Jarek Kobiela, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of General, Endocrine and Transplant Surgery, Medical University of Gdansk, Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie 3a, Gdansk 80-210, Poland.
Received: July 4, 2021
Peer-review started: July 4, 2021
First decision: July 13, 2021
Revised: July 14, 2021
Accepted: September 8, 2021
Article in press: September 8, 2021
Published online: November 28, 2021
Core Tip

Core Tip: Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are a widely, often inappropriately, used class of drugs. Through various mechanisms, they are suspected to increase the risk of gastrointestinal cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this review is to summarize existing literature on the effect of PPI on CRC. The review assessed basic research studies to identify mechanisms at play in this relationship, observational studies to determine if a causal association exists between PPI use and CRC incidence, and clinical studies to examine if PPI use during chemotherapy influences treatment efficacy and oncological outcomes.