Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Oct 14, 2021; 27(38): 6357-6373
Published online Oct 14, 2021. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i38.6357
Fully covered metal biliary stents: A review of the literature
Robert Lam, Thiruvengadam Muniraj
Robert Lam, Thiruvengadam Muniraj, Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, United States
Author contributions: Lam R and Muniraj T equally contributed to the work; All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: None of the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Thiruvengadam Muniraj, FRCP, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, 1080 LMP, New Haven, CT 06520, United States.
Received: March 30, 2021
Peer-review started: March 30, 2021
First decision: June 23, 2021
Revised: July 9, 2021
Accepted: August 27, 2021
Article in press: August 27, 2021
Published online: October 14, 2021
Core Tip

Core Tip: Fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMS) are composed of a metal alloy tubular mesh with a synthetic covering to minimize tumor ingrowth. They have a broad range of biliary endoscopic applications, including the treatment of strictures, biliary leak, and post-sphincterotomy bleeding. Novel anchoring designs have been effective at addressing the common problem of stent migration with FCSEMS.