High-flow nasal oxygen availability for sedation decreases the use of general anesthesia during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasound
Roman Schumann, Robert M Knapp, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, United States
Nikola S Natov, Sanjay R Hegde, The Gastroenterology/Hepatology Division, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, United States
Klifford A Rocuts-Martinez, Critical Care Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH 03756, United States
Matthew D Finkelman, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, United States
Tom V Phan, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, United States
Author contributions: Schumann R contributed to study design, data collection, data analysis, and manuscript preparation; Natov NS, Knapp RM contributed to data collection and manuscript preparation; Rocuts-Martinez KA, Phan TV contributed to study design and data collection; Finkelman MD contributed to data analysis and manuscript preparation; Hegde SR contributed to manuscript preparation.
Supported by The Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, United States.
Institutional review board statement: The study was reviewed and approved by the Tufts Medical Center and Tufts University Health Sciences Campus Institutional Review Board.
Informed consent statement: Written consent for both the endoscopic procedures (ERCP and/or EUS) and administration of anesthesia (general anesthesia or deep sedation) was obtained from all patients or their designated legal agent(s). This is a retrospective study on data from clinical care. As such this study was deemed to be minimal risk by the Tufts institutional review board and a waiver of informed consent for this study was granted (see also attached IRB approval document).
Conflict-of-interest statement: None of the authors report a conflict of interest.
Data sharing statement: Technical appendix, statistical code, and the datasets are available from the corresponding author at email@example.com. A waiver of informed consent was obtained from the institutional review board, and data are de-identified with a minimal risk of loss of confidentiality. The benefit of results sharing outweigh this potential risk.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Roman Schumann, MD, Professor of Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, United States. firstname.lastname@example.org
Telephone: +1-617-6366044 Fax: +1-617-6368384
Received: August 19, 2016
Peer-review started: August 19, 2016
First decision: October 20, 2016
Revised: November 3, 2016
Accepted: November 28, 2016
Article in press: November 28, 2016
Published online: December 21, 2016