Published online Oct 28, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i40.11321
Peer-review started: April 1, 2015
First decision: June 23, 2015
Revised: July 26, 2015
Accepted: September 13, 2015
Article in press: September 14, 2015
Published online: October 28, 2015
Core tip: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, with multi-factorial pathogenesis, which affect millions of people worldwide and have a rising incidence. Dysbalanced intestinal microbiota is an important feature of IBD. The relationship between dysbalanced microbiota and IBD is not fully uncovered. We are only beginning to appreciate the role of microbiota in the pathogenesis, progression or prognosis of IBD. In this review, we deal with the composition of gut microbiota, microbe-host interactions, therapeutic potential of bacteria and discuss the possible roles of bacteriophages in IBD.