Published online Dec 7, 2014. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i45.16913
Revised: August 2, 2014
Accepted: September 12, 2014
Published online: December 7, 2014
Core tip: Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) and endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) have been performed for removal of common bile duct stones. Although the rates of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopanc- reatography pancreatitis (PEP) after EPBD and EPLBD varied in many studies, the safety and feasibility of balloon dilation have been proven as results have accumulated. However, the exact mechanism of PEP after balloon dilation is unclear. The main determinant of severe PEP may be edema or spasm caused by irritation of the pancreatic orifice while performing difficult selective cannulation and struggling to remove the stone rather than balloon compression of the pancreatic flow.