Published online Oct 28, 2014. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i40.14805
Revised: June 16, 2014
Accepted: July 16, 2014
Published online: October 28, 2014
Core tip: Several lines of evidence strongly support the link between intestinal microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This review discusses the potential microbial pathogens, disturbance of intestinal microbiota, and immune interactions between host and microbes in IBD. Furthermore, alternative IBD treatment approaches aimed at restoring the disturbed intestinal microbiota have become a major interest in recent years. This article also reviews the present literature concerning the clinical use of probiotics, especially fecal microbiota transplantation and its barriers, and future directions in the management of IBD.