Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Dec 7, 2021; 27(45): 7792-7800
Published online Dec 7, 2021. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i45.7792
Gut microbiome in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and specific changes associated with acute graft vs host disease
Quentin Le Bastard, Patrice Chevallier, Emmanuel Montassier
Quentin Le Bastard, Emmanuel Montassier, Department of Emergency Medicine, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes 44093, France
Patrice Chevallier, Department of Hematology, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes 44093, France
Author contributions: Le Bastard Q, Chevallier P, and Montassier E have been involved equally and have read and approved the final manuscript; all authors meet the criteria for authorship established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and verify the validity of the results reported.
Conflict-of-interest statement: There is no conflict of interest associated with any of the senior author or other coauthors who contributed their efforts in this manuscript.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Emmanuel Montassier, MD, PhD, Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Nantes University Hospital, 1 place Alexis Ricordeau, Nantes 44093, France.
Received: April 20, 2021
Peer-review started: April 20, 2021
First decision: July 27, 2021
Revised: August 5, 2021
Accepted: November 20, 2021
Article in press: November 20, 2021
Published online: December 7, 2021

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) is a standard validated therapy for patients suffering from malignant and nonmalignant hematological diseases. However, aHSCT procedures are limited by potentially life-threatening complications, and one of the most serious complications is acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). During the last decades, DNA sequencing technologies were used to investigate relationship between composition or function of the gut microbiome and disease states. Even if it remains unclear whether these microbiome alterations are causative or secondary to the presence of the disease, they may be useful for diagnosis, prevention and therapy in aHSCT recipients. Here, we summarized the most recent findings of the association between human gut microbiome changes and acute GVHD in patients receiving aHSCT.

Keywords: Gut microbiome, DNA sequencing technologies, Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Transplants, Acute graft vs host disease, Biomarkers, Composition, Function

Core Tip: This review reports the compositional and functional changes in gut microbiome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients associated with acute graft-versus-host disease that could serve a biomarker for diagnosis and prevention in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.