Published online Jul 21, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i27.3929
Peer-review started: May 6, 2020
First decision: May 21, 2020
Revised: May 24, 2020
Accepted: July 4, 2020
Article in press: July 4, 2020
Published online: July 21, 2020
Some patients with hepatolithiasis cannot tolerate surgery due to severe cardiac or pulmonary comorbidities, or cannot be endoscopically treated because of altered gastrointestinal anatomies.
To propose a modified percutaneous transhepatic papillary balloon dilation procedure, and evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of this modality.
Data from 21 consecutive patients who underwent modified percutaneous transhepatic papillary balloon dilation with hepatolithiasis were retrospectively analyzed. Using auxiliary devices, intrahepatic bile duct stones were pushed into the common bile duct and expelled into the duodenum with an inflated balloon catheter. The outcomes recorded included success rate, procedure time, hospital stay, causes of failure, and procedure-related complications. Patients with possible long-term complications were followed up for 2 years.
Intrahepatic bile duct stones were successfully removed in 20 (95.23%) patients. Mean procedure time was 65.8 ± 5.3 min. Mean hospital stay was 10.7 ± 1.5 d. No pancreatitis, gastrointestinal, or biliary duct perforation was observed. All patients were followed up for 2 years, and there was no evidence of reflux cholangitis or calculi recurrence.
Modified percutaneous transhepatic papillary balloon dilation was feasible and safe with a small number of patients with hepatolithiasis, and may be a treatment option in patients with severe comorbidities or in patients in whom endoscopic procedure was not successful.
Core tip: Some patients with hepatolithiasis cannot tolerate surgery due to severe cardiac or pulmonary comorbidities, or cannot be endoscopically treated because of altered gastrointestinal anatomies. For these patients, modified percutaneous transhepatic papillary balloon dilation, providing a path with compliance and only requiring intravenous anesthesia, should be considered as a treatment option, especially when the endoscopic procedure is not successful.