Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Sep 21, 2018; 24(35): 4014-4020
Published online Sep 21, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i35.4014
Endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease: Role in diagnosis, management, and treatment
Clayton M Spiceland, Nilesh Lodhia
Clayton M Spiceland, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, United States
Nilesh Lodhia, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC 28204, United States
Author contributions: All authors equally contributed to this paper with conception and design of the study, literature review and analysis, drafting and critical revision and editing, and approval of the final version.
Conflict-of-interest statement: Lodhia N has served as a consultant for Medtronic. No potential conflicts of interest for Spiceland CM. No financial support.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Nilesh Lodhia, MD, Associate Professor, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, CHS Digestive Health 1025 Morehead Medical Drive, Suite 300 Charlotte, NC 28204,United States.
Telephone: +1-843-7043554593 Fax: +1-843-8760372
Received: March 29, 2018
Peer-review started: March 30, 2018
First decision: May 17, 2018
Revised: July 29, 2018
Accepted: August 1, 2018
Article in press: August 1, 2018
Published online: September 21, 2018

Endoscopy plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy have long been used in the care of patients with IBD. As endoscopic technologies have progressed, tools such as endoscopic ultrasound, capsule endoscopy, and balloon-assisted enteroscopy have expanded the role of endoscopy in IBD. Furthermore, chromoendoscopy has enhanced our ability to detect dysplasia in IBD. In this review article, we will focus on the roles, indications, and limitations of these tools in IBD. We will also discuss the most commonly used endoscopic scoring systems, as well as special considerations in post-surgical patients. Lastly, we will discuss the role of endoscopy in the diagnosis and management of fistulae and strictures.

Keywords: Endoscopy, Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, Ulcerative colitis, Colonoscopy, Capsule endoscopy, Dysplasia detection, Stricture dilation, Fistula management

Core tip: Although endoscopy has long been used in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), technologic advances have allowed for additional tools to assist in the management and treatment of IBD patients. This review article discusses the roles, indications, and limitations of endoscopy in IBD.