Opinion Review
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022.
World J Transplant. Jan 18, 2022; 12(1): 1-7
Published online Jan 18, 2022. doi: 10.5500/wjt.v12.i1.1
Table 1 Seroprevalence and RNA prevalence studies in different transplant populations
Type of transplant and period
Patients (n)
RNA prevalence
Liver transplant; 1997-2017Japan31314.1%/No significant association between HPgV infection and liver transplant outcomes; HPgV infection induced the up-regulation of ISG expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cellsIzumi et al[27], 2019
Renal transplant; 1989-1996Italy15524%17%Not associated with disease pathogenicity; Lower serum levels of HCV-RNA in HGV/HCV co-infected carriers compared to those infected with HCV onlyDe Filippi et al[34], 2001
Renal transplant; 2015-2016Brazil6136.1%/Most common genotype 2 (80.9%), followed by G3 (9.5%), G1 (4.85), and G5 (4.8%); no significant impact on patient outcomesSavassi-Ribas et al[31], 2020
Renal transplantFrance103 HCV positive RT recipients28%/HGV infection has no detrimental effect on liver enzymes or liver histology in HCV-positive patientsRostaing et al[37], 1999
Heart transplant; 1993-1998Germany51 transplant candidates2.0%; 00; 6.0%RNA persisted after transplant; anti-E2 antibodies persisted after transplantKallinowski et al[38], 2002
Post-transplant36.0% de novo/RNA persisted in 94% infected patients; No significant correlation between the number of blood transfusions and the infection; No impact on liver disease or patient outcome
Liver transplant; 1993-1998Germany72 transplant candidates11.%/RNA persisted in 88% of infected patientsKallinowski et al[38], 2002
Post-transplant36% de novo/RNA persisted in 87% of infected patients; no significant correlation between the number of blood transfusions and the infection; no impact on liver disease or patient outcome
Kidney transplant; 1997Thailand9443%/Co-circulation of HGV and HCV RNA was detected in 12 patients (13%)Raengsakulrach et al[30], 1997
Heart transplant; 1993-1996Germany24324%/HGV infections are transfusion related; not related to the use of mechanical circulatory assist devices or immunosuppressionWolff et al[36], 1996
Liver transplant; 1989-1996Germany98Pre-tx 8.2%; post-tx 44%/None of the hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or fulminant hepatitis, were HGV-RNA positive preoperatively; HGV was frequently acquired after LT but had no impact on the short- and medium-term clinical course post-LTFischer et al[23], 1999
Liver transplant; 2007-2010Iran1069.4%/Moderate prevalence of HGV infection in liver transplant recipientsEbadi et al[39], 2011
Kidney transplant; 1986-1990United States9312%/HGV infection does not adversely affect clinical outcome during early follow-upIsaacson et al[32], 1999
Liver transplant; 1989-1996Italy136Pre-tx 18.4%; post-tx 47.8%Pre-tx 26.5%Liver transplant patients are heavily exposed to HGV before and after transplantation; HGV does not induce liver disease; most infections are self-limited and induce a protective immunity (anti-E2 antibodies presence)Silini et al[40], 1998
HSCT; 1985-1996France9529.5%/Acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, or veno-occlusive disease are similar in HGV+ and HGV- recipients in early period after allogenic BMTCorbi et al[21],1997
Kidney transplant; 1997Germany22114%40%The majority of infected individuals eliminate the virus over timeStark et al[33], 1997
Kidney transplant; NATurkey6942%/Genotype 2 is the dominant type; subgroup 2a most common of the isolatesErensoy et al[41], 2002
Liver transplant; 1993-1995United Kingdom4747%/HGV does not cause significant liver disease after LTKarayiannis et al[42], 1998
Liver transplant; 1979-1990Netherlands39Pre-tx 15.4%; post-tx 43.6%/HGV infection is highly prevalent in liver transplant patients; in the absence of HBV or HCV co-infection with, no long-term negative influence on the graftHaagsma et al[24], 1997
Kidney transplant; 1997-2000India7052.9%58.6%GBV-C/HGV RNA significantly associated with ≥ 20 hemodialysis sessionsAbraham et al[29], 2003
Liver transplant; 1990-1994United States179Pre-tx 15%; post-tx 50%/HGV infection not associated with poor outcomeHoofnagle et al[26], 1997
HSCT; 2011-2017China18818.6%/HPgV is highly prevalent in HSCT patients; blood transfusions significantly increase the risk of HPgV infectionLi et al[22], 2019
HSCT; 2014-2015Switzerland4035%/HPgV is highly prevalent and persists for several monthsVu et al[20], 2019