Prospective Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Gastrointest Surg. Dec 27, 2016; 8(12): 779-783
Published online Dec 27, 2016. doi: 10.4240/wjgs.v8.i12.779
Table 1 Description of different socioeconomic classes
The lower classTypified by poverty, homelessness, and unemployment Few individuals in this class finish their high school education They suffer from lack of medical care, adequate housing and food, decent clothing, safety, and vocational training
The working classMinimally educated people who engage in “manual labor” with little or no prestige Unskilled workers in the class-dishwashers, cashiers, maids, and waitresses-usually are underpaid and have no opportunity for career advancement Skilled workers in this class-carpenters, plumbers, and electricians-may make more money than workers in the middle class, however, their jobs are usually more physically taxing, and in some cases quite dangerous
The middle classHave more money than those below them on the “social ladder,” but less than those above them The lower middle class is often made up of less educated people with lower incomes, such as managers, small business owners, teachers, and secretaries The upper middle class is often made up of highly educated business and professional people with high incomes, such as doctors, lawyers, stockbrokers, and CEOs
The upper classThe lower-upper class includes those with “new money,” or money made from investments, business ventures, and so forth The upper-upper class includes those aristocratic and “high-society” families with “old money” who have been rich for generations. The upper-upper class is more prestigious than the lower-upper class Both segments of the upper class are exceptionally rich. They live in exclusive neighborhoods, gather at expensive social clubs, and send their children to the finest schools. As might be expected, they also exercise a great deal of influence and power both nationally and globally
Table 2 Distribution of gross appearance by sigmoidoscopy
Gross pathologyn (%)
Normal mucosa10 (48)
Mucosal edema8 (38)
Fine mucosal granularity + small superficial ulcers3 (14)
Table 3 Distribution of histopathology of sigmoidoscopic biopsies
Histopathologyn (%)
Normal mucosa8 (38)
Submucosal infiltration with chronic non-specific inflammatory cells8 (38)
Features of solitary rectal ulcer5 (24)