Systematic Reviews
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2024.
World J Gastrointest Surg. Apr 27, 2024; 16(4): 1155-1164
Published online Apr 27, 2024. doi: 10.4240/wjgs.v16.i4.1155
Table 1 Surgical specialties in which quality-adjusted life years have been used in surgical waiting lists and the procedures evaluated
Surgical specialtiesArticles, nProcedure evaluated and references
General surgery15Bariatric surgery (n = 1)[25]
Liver transplant (n = 14)[10,13,14,16,17,31-39]
Urology15Kidney transplant (n = 15)[11,18,40-52]
Heart surgery5Heart transplant (n = 4)[7-9,53]
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (n = 1)[28]
Thoracic surgery4Lung transplant (n = 4)[15,54-56]
Traumatology4Total knee arthroplasty (n = 3)[20-22]
Mosaicplasty (n = 1)[27]
Pediatric surgery2Heart transplant (n = 1)[57]
Intestinal transplant (n = 1)[58]
Ophthalmology2Cataract surgery (n = 2)[23,24]
Otorhinolaryngology1Septoplasty (n = 1)[26]
Table 2 Types of models used to measure quality-adjusted life years
Models used
Articles, n
Type of study[references]
Articles, n
Retrospective cohort[27]1
Randomized controlled trial[24]1
Historical and concurrent cohort[54]1
Prospective randomized study[21]1
Not specified[24,31,33,55,56]5
Markov model[9-11,13-18,20,22,23,25,28,32,34-40,42-45,47-52,57,58]34
Double Queueing Model[41]1
Not specified[7,8,46,53]4
Table 3 Models and surveys used to measure quality-adjusted life years
Models used
Surveys used[references]
Articles, n
Real-life15-D instrument[21,31]2
Not specified[54]1
SF-LDQoL questionnaire[39]1
Not specified[7-9,11,13,14,16-18,22,23,32,34,35,37,38,40-45,47-53,57,58]31
Table 4 Countries where the study was carried out, and the economic value of the quality-adjusted life years
Articles, n[references]
Economic value of the QALY (n = 24)
United States21[7-10,13,16,22,34,37,38,40-44,47,49-51,53,57]WTP $50000 to $100000/QALY[7-10,13,22,53,57]
United Kingdom9[14,15,24,26,27,33,39,46,56]WTP £20000 to £30000/QALY[14,15,24,26,27,33]
Finland2[21,31]Not specified
Spain1[28]WTP 20000 to 25000€/QALY[28]
Italy and United States1[35]WTP $50000/QALY[35]
Norway1[32]WTP 70500€/QALY[32]
Portugal1[55]WTP 50000€/QALY[55]
Sweden1[25]WTP < €35500/QALY[25]
Switzerland1[17]WTP €35000/QALY[17]
Table 5 Summary of study objectives
Articles, n[references]
To determine whether a specific surgical procedure was cost-effective in a certain disease or dependent on certain characteristics of the cohort in which it was performed14[21-26,28,31-33,41,54,55,58]
To determine whether increasing the pool of organs through various strategies was cost-effective26[8-11,13-18,20,34,36-41,46-52,57]
To compare either two surgical procedures, a surgical procedure vs standard treatment, bridging treatment while on the waitlist, or an alternative treatment in order to determine which had better outcomes in terms of cost-effectiveness8[27,35,42-45,53,56]