Copyright ©The Author(s) 2024.
World J Gastrointest Surg. Apr 27, 2024; 16(4): 1017-1029
Published online Apr 27, 2024. doi: 10.4240/wjgs.v16.i4.1017
Table 1 An overview of included studies
Ref.Study typePatients includedSurgery indicationVisualization of biliary structures (%)
Hartmann’s pouch
Cystic duct
Common bile duct
Common hepatic duct
Critical junction of cystic duct-common bile duct
Liu et al[12], 2018Prospective, cohort study46n = 21 symptomatic lithiasis; n=25 cholecystitis-86.9% before dissection; -89.1% after dissection-32.6% before dissection; -84.7% after dissection-58.6% before dissection; -78.2% after dissection-45.6% before dissection; -73.9% after dissectionNon stated
Graves et al[19], 2017Prospective, cohort study11n = 8 biliary colic; n = 1 biliary dyskinesia; n = 2 acute cholecystitisNon stated0.909Non statedNon stated0.909
Quaresima et al[20], 2020Matched, case-control study2 patients received intragallbladder ICG (42 received intravenous ICG administration and 44 patients underwent IOC)Acute or chronic cholecystitisNon stated1-95.4% before dissection; -95.4% after dissection1-90.1% before dissection; -97.7% after dissection1-90.1% before dissection; -97.7% after dissection1-79.5% before dissection; -97.7% after dissection1
Jao et al[16], 2020Case reports2Acute cholecystitisNon stated11Non stated1
Gené Škrabec et al[18], 2020Case-control study20 patients received intragallbladder ICG (20 patients underwent standard LC under wight light)Non stated80%280%256%2Non stated145%2
Cárdenas et al[17], 2021 Prospective, cohort study23Symptomatic cholelithiasis or acute cholecystitisNon stated-16.7% before dissection; -100.0% after dissection-65.2% before dissection; -91.3% after dissection-30.4% before dissection; -47.8% after dissectionNon stated
Shibata et al[21], 2021Prospective, cohort study12Acute cholecystitisNon stated-16.7% before dissection; -100% after dissection-58.3% before dissection; -100% after dissection-58.3% before dissection; -100% after dissectionNon stated
Castagneto-Gissey et al[22], 2022Case-control study17 patients received intragallbladder ICG; and 18 patients intravenous ICG administrationn = 14 acute or chronic cholecystitis;
n = 2 choledocholithiasis n = 1 adenomyomatosis
Intragallbladder ICG group
Non stated-76.5% before dissection; -88.2% after dissection 76.5%5.9%47.1%
Intravenous ICG group
Non stated66.7% before dissection; -83.3% after dissection77.8%22.2%61.1%
Table 2 An overview of systems used in different studies, the chosen technique of indocyanine green administration and dosage
NIR-ICG fluorescence device
ICG dose/concentration
Technique of administration
Liu et al[12], 2018A specific light source (D-Light P, Karl Storz, GmbH & Co. KG, Tuttlingen, Germany) with a NIR-enabled Hopkins 10-mm, 30° laparoscope (Karl Storz, GmbH & Co. KG, Tuttlingen, Germany); a coupled IMAGE1 S camera head; the IMAGE1 S software enhancement mode0.125 mg/mL; 10 mLn = 18 PTGBD; n = 28 percutaneous punctures of the gallbladder with a Veress needle, using 2-0 Prolene stitch
Graves et al[19], 2017A 30-degree 5 mm laparoscope with NIR imaging capability (Stryker Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI, United States)0.025 mg/mL ICG-bile solution; 10 mLGallbladder puncture with a needle-tipped Kumar cholangiogram catheter or an 8Fr pigtail drainage catheter (Cook, Inc., Bloomington, IN, United States)
Quaresima et al[20], 2020-Karl Storz Image 1S D-Light system (Karl Storz Endoscope GmbH & C. K., Tuttlingen Germany) with a 30° forward oblique vision laparoscope; use of adjunctive filters (Spectra A) intraoperatively0.5 mg/mL; 4.0 mLGallbladder puncture with a Veress needle and close of the puncture site with suture material
Jao et al[16], 2020Image 1 High-Definition fluorescence laparoscope (Karl Storz Endoscopes, Germany)2.5-mg/mL; 5 mLVia PTGBD
Gené Škrabec et al[18], 2020Olympus EndoEye 3D camera0.25 mg/mL; 2-3 mLGallbladder puncture with a Veress needle and closure of the entry point with a grasper, a stitch, or a clip
Cárdenas et al[17], 2021Pinpoint fluorescence endoscopic imaging system (Novadaq/Stryker)2.5 mg/mL; 2-4 mLPercutaneous gallbladder puncture under direct vision in the fundus using a 22-gauge epidural needle (Spinocan, Braun); puncture site was closed using forceps
Shibata et al[21], 2021Non stated0.025 mg/mL; 1 mLn = 3 percutaneous gallbladder punctures; n = 8 PTGBD; n = 1 ENBD
Castagneto-Gissey et al[22], 2022Pinpoint Fluorescence Endoscopic Imaging System (Novadaq/Stryker, Burnaby, Canada)0.5 mg/mL; 5 mLPercutaneous gallbladder puncture with a 27-gauge needle