Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023.
World J Gastrointest Surg. May 27, 2023; 15(5): 745-756
Published online May 27, 2023. doi: 10.4240/wjgs.v15.i5.745
Table 1 Summary table of all studies reporting on anastomotic leakage and outcomes after colorectal cancer surgery
30 d mortality
Follow-up (mo)
Leak's definition
AL rate (%)
LR rate (%)
Multivariate analysis
Phillips et al[35], 1984PCS1976-1980C + R1627YesNoNoNoNoNo≥ 60I, II, IIINR814No
Sauven et al[36], 1989RCS1978-1981C + R53YesNoNoNoNoNo36I, II, III, IVClin, Rad1913No
Amato et al[37], 1991PCS1981-1995R78YesNoNoNoNoNo≥ 24I, II, IIIClin, Rad1712No
Akyol et al[38], 1991RCS1985-1989C + R167YesYesNoYesNoNo25I, II, III, IVClin, Rad1918Yes
Fujita et al[39], 1993PCS1970-1991C/R980YesYesNoNoYesNoNRI, II, III, IVClin, Rad33Yes
Pakkastie et al[100], 1995PCS1981-1990R116YesNoYesNoYesNo48I, II, IIIClin, Rad1628No
Petersen et al[40], 1998RCS1985-1995C + R331YesNoYesYesNoYes32I, II, III, IVClin89Yes
Merkel et al[70], 2001RCS1978-1996R814YesNoNoYesNoNo90I, II, IIIClin1114Yes
Bell et al[101], 2003PCS1971-1991R401YesNoNoNoNoNo≥ 60I, II, IIIClin, Rad1312Yes
Law et al[102], 2004PCS1993-2002R622YesNoNoYesNoNo39, 6I, II, IIIClin, Rad, Endo610Yes
Walker et al[43], 2004PCS1971-1999C + R1722NoNoYesNoNoNo≥ 60I, II, IIIClin, Rad5NRYes
Branagan et al[41], 2005PCS1991-1995C/R1834YesNoYesNoNoNo≥ 60I, II, IIIClin, Rad410Yes
Eriksen et al[92], 2005PCS1993-1999R1958YesNoYesNoNoYes45I, II, IIIClin, Rad1211Yes
McArdle et al[42], 2005PCS1991-1994C + R2235NoNoYesYesNoYes≥ 60I, II, IIIClin, Rad4NRYes
Choi et al[44], 2006PCS1996-2004C + R1417NoNoYesNoNoNoNRI, II, III, IVClin, Rad2NRYes
Ptok et al[90], 2007RCS2000-2001R2044YesNoNoNoYesYes40I, II, IIIClin, Rad, Endo156Yes
Law et al[45], 2007PCS1996-2004C + R1580YesYesNoYesNoYes46I, II, III, IVClin, Rad46Yes
Jung et al[71], 2008RCS1997-2003R1391NoNoYesYesNoNo40I, II, IIIClin, Rad310No
Lee et al[79], 2008PCS1996-2004R1278YesNoYesNoYesNo45I, II, III, IVClin, Rad, Endo4NRYes
den Dulk et al[87], 2009RCS1987-2002R2726YesYesYesYesYesNo71I, II, IIIClin, Rad, Endo109Yes
Eberhardt et al[46], 2009PCS1979-2007C/R468YesYesYesYesNoNo94I, II, IIIClin, Rad336Yes
Marra et al[47], 2009RCS1991-2004C440YesYesYesNoNoYes63I, II, IIIClin, Rad36No
Bertelsen et al[32], 2010PCS2001-2004R1494YesYesYesNoNoYes45I, II, IIIClin, Rad, Endo117Yes
Kube et al[48], 2010PCS2000-2004C28271NoNoYesNoYesYes23NRClin, Rad3NRNo
Boccola et al[49], 2011PCS1984-2004C + R1576NoNoYesYesYesNo67I, II, III, IVClin, Rad7NRYes
Jörgren et al[72], 2011PCS1995-1997R250YesYesYesYesNoYes≥ 60I, II, IIIClin, Rad, Endo98Yes
Katoh et al[50], 2011RCS1990-2000C/R207NoNoNoNoYesNo116IIClin, Rad6NRYes
Lin et al[80], 2011PCS1993-2003R999YesYesYesYesYesYes≥ 60I, II, IIIClin, Rad55Yes
Smith et al[73], 2012RCS1991-2010R1127YesNoYesYesNoYes74I, II, IIIClin, Rad45Yes
Smith et al[103], 2013RCS1992-2010R184YesNoYesYesNoNo30IVClin, Rad713Yes
Krarup et al[59], 2014RCS2001-2008C8589YesYesYesNoNoNo≥ 60I, II, IIIClin, Rad610Yes
Bakker et al[104], 2014RCS2009-2011C15667NoNoNoNoNoYesNRI, II, III, IVClin, Rad8NRYes
Jäger et al[81], 2015RCS2003-2010R108NoNoYesYesYesNo70I, II, IIIClin, Rad18NRYes
Ke et al[78], 2015RCS2007-2011R653YesYesNoNoYesNo47I, II, III, IVClin, Rad64Yes
Ebinger et al[74], 2015RCS1991-2010R584YesYesYesYesNoNo62I, II, IIIClin, Rad, Endo1117Yes
Jannasch et al[84], 2015PCS2000-2010R17867YesNoYesNoYesNo30I, II, IIIClin, Rad129Yes
Nachiappan et al[52], 2015PCS2004-2013C + R1048YesYesYesNoYesNo40I, II, III, IVClin, Rad92Yes
Kang et al[82], 2015RCS2006-2009R1083YesNoYesNoYesYes54I, II, IIIClin, Rad62Yes
Kulu et al[85], 2015RCS2002-2011R570YesNoYesNoNoNo56I, II, IIIClin, Rad, Endo94Yes
Krarup et al[60], 2015RCS2001-2008C8597NoNoNoNoNoYes≥ 60I, II, IIIClin, Rad6NRYes
Lim et al[93], 2015RCS2007-2011R2510NoNoYesNoNoNo33I, II, III, IVClin6NRYes
Kim et al[53], 2015RCS2008-2013C + R809YesYesYesNoNoYesNRI, II, IIIClin, Rad44Yes
Espín et al[77], 2015RCS2006-2008R1181YesNoYesYesNoYes60I, II, IIIClin95Yes
Breugom et al[54], 2016RCS2006-2008C761NoNoYesNoYesNo60I, II, IIINR5NRYes
Park et al[56], 2016RCS2000-2011C/R10477YesYesYesNoYesYes45I, II, III, IVClin, Rad32Yes
Sammour et al[65], 2018PCS1988-2015C/R4892YesNoYesYesNoYes60I, II, III, IVClin, Rad4C = 5/R = 2Yes
Noh et al[88], 2016RCS2006-2012R1258YesYesYesNoYesNo50I, II, III, IVClin, Rad85Yes
Nordholm et al[61], 2017RCS2009-2013C/R774NoNoYesNoNoYes36IVClin, Rad9NRYes
Goto et al[66], 2017RCS2007-2008C3364YesYesYesYesNoYes96I, II, III, IVClin, Rad31Yes
Hain et al[91], 2017RCS2005-2014R428YesNoNoNoNoYes40I, II, III, IVClin, Rad288Yes
Hüttner et al[51], 2018RCS2001-2014C628NoNoYesNoYesNo60I, II, IIIRad4NRYes
Voron et al[57], 2019RCS1990-2015C1025NoNoYesNoYesNo60I, II, III, IVClin, Rad4NRYes
Boström et al[94], 2018RCS2007-2016R6948NoNoYesNoNoNo60I, II, III, IVNR10NRYes
Ng et al[62], 2018RCS2002-2015C + R843NoNoYesNoNoYes150I, II, III, IVClin, Rad6NRYes
Ramphal et al[58], 2018RCS2005-2015C + R1984YesYesYesNoYesYes48I, II, III, IVClin, Rad82Yes
Furnée et al[86], 2019RCS2011R746YesYesYesNoYesYes42I, II, IIIRad144Yes
Allaix et al[83], 2020RCS1998-2013R532YesYesYesNoYesNo80I, II, IIIClin, Rad86Yes
Zimmermann et al[55], 2019RCS2001-2014C + R1122YesYesYesNoYesNo63I, II, III, IVNR81Yes
Jang et al[76], 2019RCS2000-2013R698YesYesYesYesYesNo48I, II, IIIClin, Rad717Yes
Crippa et al[75], 2020RCS2000-2013R787YesNoYesYesYesNo64I, II, III, IVClin, Rad52Yes
Kryzauskas et al[69], 2020PCS2014-2018C/R900NoNoYesNoYesYesNRI, II, III, IVClin, Rad, EndoC = 5/R = 11NRYes
Dulskas et al[95], 2022RCS2014-2018C488NoNoYesNoNoNo48I, II, III, IVClin, Rad, Endo5NRYes
Arron et al[96], 2022RCS2008-2018C/R88154NoNoNoYesYesNoNRI, II, III, IVClin, RadC = 5/R = 8NRYes
Koedam et al[97], 2022RCS1997-2010C/R1832YesYesYesNoYesNo60I, II, III (No T4)Clin, RadC = 3/R = 11C = 15/R = 13Yes
Peltrini et al[89], 2022RCS2011-2017R367YesYesYesNoYesNo60I, II, III, IVClin, Rad, Endo1723Yes