Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023.
World J Gastrointest Surg. Jan 27, 2023; 15(1): 9-18
Published online Jan 27, 2023. doi: 10.4240/wjgs.v15.i1.9
Table 1 Description characteristics of different ablation modalities
Ablation modalities
RFA[13,14]Most widely used and mature technologyLimited zone of monopolar centrifugal ablation
Multibipolar RFA for larger and more modulable ablation zonesSensitive to heat sink effect
Influenced by tissue conductance
MWA[13,14]Higher temperature and faster heating of larger target over RFAComplex and technically demanding operation
Less sensitive to heat sink effectThermal injury from higher temperature
Less influenced by tissue conductance
PEI[42]Simple to perform, inexpensiveSmall size of ablation zone
Chemo-ablation: No thermal injuryHigh local recurrence rate
HIFU[47]Noninvasive operation: No worry of needle tract seedingTime consuming
Influenced by ultrasoundpropagation and artifacts, respiration motion
CRA[13,48]Less painHigh cost
Well-visualized ice ball on imaging for precise monitoringCryoshock (more often in early device)
IRE[13,14]Nonthermal ablation: low risk of thermal injuryRisk of myoclonia and arrhythmias
Less sensitive to heat-sink effectLimited clinical data
Well preserved connective tissue, blood vessels and bile ducts
Less frequent liver failure