Retrospective Cohort Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022.
World J Gastrointest Surg. Jan 27, 2022; 14(1): 24-35
Published online Jan 27, 2022. doi: 10.4240/wjgs.v14.i1.24
Table 1 Clinical, laboratory and operative patient characteristics (n = 83)
Clinical, laboratory and operative patient characteristics (n = 83)
Age (yr), median (IQR)59 (49–67)
Sex, male/female, n (%)36 (43)/47 (57)
Perioperative transfusion, n (%)21 (25)
Haemoglobin in g/L, median (IQR)115 (108–127)
Platelet count in 109/L, median (IQR)285 (243–372)
International Normalized Ratio, median (IQR)1.06 (1.01–1.15)
Serum glucose in mmol/L, median (IQR)5.1 (4.8–5.7)
Serum creatinine in mmol/L, median (IQR)53 (47–65)
Serum albumin in g/L, median (IQR)38.1 (32–41.1)
Serum total bilirubin in µmol/L, median (IQR)23.9 (12.9–60)
Serum CA 19-9 in IU/mL, median (IQR)26.3 (10–91.4)
Pylorus-preserving PD, n (%)69 (83)
Whipple procedure, n (%)14 (17)
Table 2 Histopathologic characteristics (n = 83)
Histopathologic characteristics (n = 83)
Tumour size in mm, median (IQR)27 (17–40)
Subtype, n (%)
Intestinal57 (69)
Pancreatobiliary19 (23)
Others7 (8)
Tumour status, n (%)
T17 (8)
T244 (53)
T332 (39)
Number of lymph nodes assessed, median (IQR)17 (12–24)
Lymph node status, n (%)
N050 (60)
N122 (26)
N211 (14)
Differentiation, n (%)
Well differentiated25 (30)
Moderately differentiated53 (64)
Poorly differentiated5 (6)
Lymphovascular invasion30 (36)
Perineural invasion26 (31)
Table 3 Recurrence patterns after pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 19)
Organs involved

Distant metastasis, n (%)
(A) First organ
(B) Second organ
(C) Third organ
A + B + C
Supraclavicular lymph node113
Suprarenal gland113
Sub-table total3081
Lymph nodal recurrence, n (%)
Celiac trunk113
Hepatic hilum113
Mesenteric lymph nodes1125
Retroperitoneal lymph nodes2138
Sub-table total719
Table 4 Cox regression model analysis for predictors of overall survival
VariablesHazard ratio95%CI
P value
Age in yr0.355
Tumour size in mm1.0311.060.059
Histopathologic subtype
Intestinal/other types
Pancreatobiliary type2.
T classification
T36.42.516.3< 0.001
Lymph node metastasis
Differentiation grade0.54
Well differentiated
Moderately differentiated0.268
Poorly differentiated0.755
Perineural invasion0.517
Lymphovascular invasion0.26

  • Citation: Fernandez-Placencia RM, Montenegro P, Guerrero M, Serrano M, Ortega E, Bravo M, Huanca L, Bertani S, Trejo JM, Webb P, Malca-Vasquez J, Taxa L, Lachos-Davila A, Celis-Zapata J, Luque-Vasquez C, Payet E, Ruiz E, Berrospi F. Survival after curative pancreaticoduodenectomy for ampullary adenocarcinoma in a South American population: A retrospective cohort study. World J Gastrointest Surg 2022; 14(1): 24-35
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