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Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Gastrointest Endosc. Jan 25, 2016; 8(2): 56-66
Published online Jan 25, 2016. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v8.i2.56
Table 1 Achalasia symptoms and associated conditions in children
Progressive dysphagia
Weight loss
Chest pain
Failure to thrive
Associated conditions
Allgrove syndrome (triple A syndrome)
Down syndrome
Chagas disease
Table 2 Complications
YearRef.LHM children (n)Fundoplication (n)Intraoperative complication (n)
Postoperative complication (n)
Mucosal injury or perforationAspiration EventConversion to openHemorrhage eventRecurrence of dysphagiaSymptoms of gastroesophageal refluxOther
1996Holcomb et al[69]2None0-/--/--/-0-/--/-
2001Mehra et al[70]188 Dor, 8 Toupet, 2 Nissen2-/-2-/-aa-/-
2001Patti et al[54]1312 Dor, 1 none000001-/-
2001Rothenberg et al[72]54 Dor, 1 Toupet1 (identified POD #5)000bb-/-
2003Mattioli et al[64]2020 Dor1-/--/-140-/-
2007Garzi et al[63]126 Thal, 6 Dor1-/--/--/-0-/-3 pts w/odynophagia
2007Paidas et al[71]1414 Dor1-/--/--/-aa-/-
2009Pastor et al[17]1411 Nissen, 3 unknown2 (1 identified on unspecified POD)-/-2-/-bb-/-
2009Askegard-Giesmann et al[67]262 Dor, 23 Toupet, 1 none210071-/-
2010Corda et al[66]20None3-/-4150-/-
2010Lee et al[6]74 Dor, 1 Nissen, 2 none-/--/--/--/--/--/-1 pt w/DVT
2010Tannuri et al[65]1515 Dor001030-/-
2000Esposito et al[60]3131 Dor3 (1 identified POD #2)-/--/--/-5-/--/-
2014Pachl et al[53]289 Dor, 1 Nissen, 18 none1-/--/--/-84-/-
2015Caldaro et al[52]99 Dor1 (identified POD #1)-/--/--/-21-/-