Prospective Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023.
World J Gastrointest Endosc. Sep 16, 2023; 15(9): 564-573
Published online Sep 16, 2023. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v15.i9.564
Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients
ParametersPatients (n = 120)
Age (yr), mean (SD)54.02 (11.90)
Sex n (%)
    Male71 (59.16%)
    Female49 (40.83%)
Complication, n (%)
    Ascites36 (30.00%)
    Hepatocellular carcinoma5 (4.17%)
Etiology, n (%)
    Hepatitis B infection82 (68.33%)
    Alcoholic liver disease11 (9.17%)
    Autoimmune 6 (5.00%)
    Primary biliary cirrhosis4 (3.33%)
    Hepatitis C infection2 (1.67%)
    Others15 (12.50%)
Child-Pugh Class, n (%)
    Class A43 (35.83%)
    Class B59 (49.17%)
    Class C18 (15.00%)
Laboratory tests, median (IQR)
    Platelet count (109/L)70.00 (59.75)
    Alanine aminotransferase (U/L)26.50 (21.10)
    Aspartate aminotransferase (U/L)32.00 (22.00)
    Albumin (g/L)34.04 (9.45)
    Total bilirubin (μmol/L)26.27 (23.90)
    Prothrombin time (s)14.25 (3.40)
    Creatinine (μmol/L)61.10 (21.35)
Table 2 The feasibility, safety, operation time of Endoscopic Ruler, and the agreement on diagnosing large oesophageal varices between endoscopists and Endoscopic Ruler
OutcomePatients (n = 120)
Primary outcome
    Technical success of Endoscopic Ruler, n (%)120 (100.00%)
Secondary outcomes
    Adverse events, n (%)0 (0.00%)
    Operation time (min), median (IQR)3.00 (3.00)
    Kappa value0.52 (95%CI: 0.31- 0.73)
Table 3 The interobserver reliability on detecting large oesophageal varices
AssessmentRatersKappa value (95%CI)
Objective measurement of Endoscopic Ruler
    All observes60.77 (0.61-0.93)
    Experienced endoscopists30.71 (0.36-1.00)
    Inexperienced endoscopists30.71 (0.36-1.00)
Empirical reading of endoscopists
    All observes60.52 (0.36-0.68)
    Experienced endoscopists30.57 (0.21-0.93)
    Inexperienced endoscopists30.40 (0.04-0.76)

  • Citation: Huang YF, Hu SJ, Bu Y, Li YL, Deng YH, Hu JP, Yang SQ, Shen Q, McAlindon M, Shi RC, Li XQ, Song TY, Qi HL, Jiao TW, Liu MY, He F, Zhu J, Ma B, Yu XB, Guo JY, Yu YH, Yong HJ, Yao WT, Ye T, Wang H, Dong WF, Liu JG, Wei Q, Tian J, Li XG, Dray X, Qi XL. Endoscopic Ruler for varix size measurement: A multicenter pilot study. World J Gastrointest Endosc 2023; 15(9): 564-573
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