Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017.
World J Hepatol. May 28, 2017; 9(15): 697-703
Published online May 28, 2017. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v9.i15.697
Table 1 Methods to detect subclinical atherosclerosis[8]
Carotid ultrasoundCIMT> 0.9 mm
CT coronary angiographyNo. of calcifications in coronary arteries≥ 1
Endothelial functionFlow-mediated vasodilation brachial artery
Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity> 12 m/s
Morpho-structural alterationElectrocardiogram (left ventricular hypertrophy)Sokolov-Lyon > 38 mm; cornell > 2444 mm*ms
Renal functionSlight increase in plasmatic creatinineM: 1.3-1.5 mg/dL
F: 1.2-1.4 mg/dL
Low glomerular filtrationCreatinine clearance < 60 mL/min
Microalbuminuria30-300 mg/24 h
Alb/Cr ≥ 22 (M) or ≥ 31 (F) mg/g Cr
Inflammatory biomarkersTNF, IL-6, C-reactive protein
Thrombogenic biomarkersPAI-1, fibrinogen, factor VII
Table 2 Cardiovascular mortality in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients
Ref.YearNAFLD diagnosisFollow-upCV mortalityCause of mortality
Dam-Larsen et al[48]2004Histology20 yr38%1st
Adams et al[49]2005Histology8 yr25%2nd
Ong et al[50]2008Ultrasound9 yr25%1st
Rafiq et al[51]2009Histology29 yr13%1st
Söderberg et al[52]2010Histology28 yr35%1st
Angulo et al[53]2013Histology9 yr38%1st
Stepanova et al[54]2013Histology12 yr28%1st
Ekstedt et al[16]2015Histology26 yr43%1st
Table 3 Immunosuppressive drugs and metabolic side effects affecting post-liver transplantation cardiovascular risk[33]
DrugGroupSide effects
CorticosteroidsDyslipidemia ++
AHT +++
DM +++
Renal impairment -
Mycophenolate mofetilDe novo purine synthesis inhibitorDyslipidemia -
DM -
Renal impairment -
CyclosporineCalcineurin inhibitorsDyslipidemia ++
TacrolimusAHT +++
DM ++
Renal impairment ++
SirolimusmTOR inhibitorsDyslipidemia +++
EverolimusAHT -
DM -
Renal impairment -