Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Hepatol. Nov 8, 2016; 8(31): 1295-1308
Published online Nov 8, 2016. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v8.i31.1295
Table 1 Diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorder and other definitions of unhealthy alcohol use
In the past year[2], have you1
Had times when you ended up drinking more, or longer than you intended?
More than once wanted to cut down or stop drinking, or tried to, but couldn’t?
Spent a lot of time drinking? Or being sick or getting over the aftereffects?
Experienced craving - a strong need, or urge, to drink?
Found that drinking or being sick from drinking often interfered with taking care of your home or family? Or caused job troubles? Or school problems?
Continued to drink even though it was causing trouble with your family or friends?
Given up or cut back on activities that were important or interesting to you, or gave you pleasure, in order to drink?
More than once gotten into situations while or after drinking that increased your chances of getting hurt (such as driving, swimming, using machinery, walking in a dangerous area, or having unsafe sex)?
Continued to drink even though it was making you feel depressed or anxious or adding to another health problem? Or after having had a memory blackout?
Had to drink much more than you once did to get the effect you want? Or found that your usual number of drinks had much less effect than before?
Found that when the effects of alcohol were wearing off, you had withdrawal symptoms, such as trouble sleeping, shakiness, irritability, anxiety, depression, restlessness, nausea, or sweating? Or sensed things that were not there?
Risky alcohol use[178]
Drinking more than the recommended amount by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
> 14 drinks per week of > 4 drinks on any day for men
> 7 drinks per week or > 3 drinks on any day for women or men > 65 yr
Problem drinking
Use of alcohol accompanied by alcohol-related consequences but not meeting criteria for AUD
Table 2 Treatment interventions for unhealthy alcohol use and alcohol use disorder
Unhealthy alcohol useBrief intervention
Motivational interviewing
AUDHospital detoxification
Individual and group therapy
Approved pharmacological treatments:
Investigational treatments:
Table 3 Non-invasive methods for analyzing liver fibrosis in patients with alcohol use disorder, hepatitis C virus infection and hepatitis C virus - human immunodeficiency virus co-infection
Ref.SettingNon-invasive methodMethod for detecting alcohol consumptionFinding
Lieber et al[69]VA studies (2) of alcoholic liver diseaseAPRI1Average alcohol intakeLow sensitivity and specificity of APRI in comparison to liver biopsy, especially in subjects with HCV
Chaudhry et al[169]HIV Hopkins clinical cohortAPRIPast 6-mo hazardous drinkingNo effect of alcohol on APRI values in HCV/HIV co-infection
Blackard et al[170]WIHS cohortFIB-42Recent drinkingNo association between alcohol intake and FIB-4 values in HCV/HIV co-infection
Muga et al[171]AUD patients admitted for detoxificationFIB-4Past 6-mo unhealthy drinkingNo association between FIB-4 and alcohol use in HCV/HIV co-infection
Fuster et al[173]HIV-live cohortFIB-4 and APRILDHNo association between LDH and liver fibrosis measured with FIB-4 or APRI
Lim et al[174]VACS cohortFIB-4AUDIT-C3Advanced liver fibrosis correlated with alcohol use