Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Hepatol. Oct 8, 2016; 8(28): 1169-1181
Published online Oct 8, 2016. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v8.i28.1169
Table 1 The Gharbi classification of hydatid cysts
IUnilocular cyst, wall and internal echogonicities
IICyst with detached membrane (water-lily sign)
IIIMultivesicular, multiseptated cyst, daughter cyst (honeycomb pattern)
IVHererogeneous cyst, no daughter vesicules
VCyst with partially or completely calcified wall
Table 2 The World Health Organization classification of hydatid cysts
WHO stageCharacteristicsActivity
CE1Uniloculer, anechoic cyst with double line signActive
CE2Multiseptated “rosette-like”“honeycomb patern” cystActive
CE3aCyst with detached membrane (water-lily sign)Transitional
CE3bDaughter cysts in solid matrixTransitional
CE4Hererogeneous cyst, no daughter vesiculesInactive
CE5Solid matrix with calcified wallInactive
Table 3 PNM classification of Echinococcus multilocularis[146]
PHepatic localization of the metacestode
PxPrimary lesion unable to be assessed
P0No detectable hepatic lesion
P1Peripheral lesion without biliary or proximal vascular involvement
P2Central lesions with biliary or proximal vascular involvement of one lobe
P3Central lesions with biliary or proximal vascular involvement of both lobes or two hepatic veins or both
P4Any lesion with extension along the portal vein, inferior vena cava or hepatic arteries
NExtra-hepatic involvement of neighbouring organs
NxNot evaluable
N0No regional involvement
N1Involvement of neighboring organs or tissues
MAbsence or presence of distant metastasis
MxNot completely assessed
M0No metastasis on chest radiograph and computer tomography brain scan
M1Metastasis present