Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Hepatol. May 8, 2015; 7(7): 916-921
Published online May 8, 2015. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i7.916
Table 1 Prevalence of different multiresistant bacteria across countries
Type of multiresistant bacteriaPrevalence rate
ESBLSouth Korea, 4%-29%[13,14,19,20,24]
Italy, 8%-20%[17,21]
Spain and United States, 6%-9%[7,15,26]
France, Denmark and Germany, < 5%[22,23,25]
MRSAItaly, 7%[17,21]
United States, 5%[26]
Spain, 3%-4%[7,15]
France, 2%[23]
Denmark, Germany, 0%[22,25]
Pseudomonas aeruginosaSpain, South Korea, 2%-3%[7,13-15,19,20,24]
Germany, 1%[22]
Denmark, France, 0%[23,25]
VSEDenmark, 12%[25]
Germany, 10%[22]
France, 5%[23]
Spain, 1%-7%[7,15]
VREUnited States, 9%[26]
Spain, France, Denmark, Germany, 0%[7,15,22,23,25]
Table 2 Suggested empirical antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections in cirrhosis
Type of infectionCommunity-acquired infectionsNosocomial and HCA1 infectionsLocal epidemiological pattern
SBP, SBE and SBThird generation cephalosporinPiperacilin/tazobactamLow prevalence of MR bacteria
Or amoxicillin/clavulanic acidOr carbapenemESBL-E
Plus glycopeptides (or linezolid)MRSA and VSE (when VRE)
Urinary tract infectionsThird generation cephalosporinWithout sepsis:VSE
Or amoxicillin/clavulanic acidNitrofurantoin or fosfomycin
With sepsis:Low prevalence of MR bacteria
Or carbapenemESBL-E
Or plus glycopeptides (or linezolid)MRSA and VSE (when VRE)
PneumoniaAmoxicillin/clavulanic acidPiperacilin/tazobactamLow prevalence of MR bacteria
Or ceftriaxone + macrolideMeropenem or ceftazidime + ciprofloxacinESBL-E and P. aeruginosa
Or levofloxacinPlus vancomycin (or linezolid)MRSA and VSE (when VRE)
Or moxifloxacin
Skin and soft tissue infectionsAmoxicillin/clavulanic acidMeropenem or ceftazidime + oxacillinESBL-E and P. aeruginosa
Or third generation cephalosporin plus oxacillinPlus glycopeptides (or linezolid or daptomycin)MRSA and VSE (when VRE)