Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Hepatol. Apr 8, 2015; 7(4): 662-672
Published online Apr 8, 2015. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i4.662
Table 1 Factors associated with QT prolongation in liver cirrhosis
Autonomic neuropathyPlasma norepinephrine, diurnal variations
Liver dysfunctionChild-Pugh class, portal hypertension, pediatric end-stage liver disease score
Serum markersElectrolytes, serum uric acid, serum bile salts, creatinine, plasma renin activity, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic factor, gonadal hormones, norepinephrine
Volume overloadLeft ventricular end diastolic dimensions
Coronary heart diseaseRisk factors: older age, male gender, smoking, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus
Left ventricular hypertrophy-
Stressful eventsAcute gastrointestinal bleeding
Drugs: excessive accumulation, impaired metabolization, distribution, or excretionErythromycin, fluoroquinolones, telipressin, sevoflurane
Table 2 Atrial fibrillation in patients with liver cirrhosis
Higher prevalence due toLower prevalence due to
Enlarged left atria (cirrhotic cardiomyopathy)Accumulation of antiarrhythmic and anti-inflammatory substances
Electrolyte imbalancesLow prevalence of hypertension
Hepatorenal syndromeMedication: diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE-inhibitors, statins
Serum bile acid concentrationDownregulation of beta-adrenergic receptors in the myocardium
Metabolic abnormalities
Inflammatory syndrome
Atrial interstitial fibrosis
Table 3 Risk factors for arrhythmias after liver transplantation
Risk factor
Stress of major surgery
Advanced age
Comorbidities: low blood pressure, anemia, limitation of the cardiac reserve
Hydroelectrolytic and acid-base imbalances
Secondary development of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity