Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Hepatol. Nov 18, 2015; 7(26): 2664-2675
Published online Nov 18, 2015. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i26.2664
Table 1 Examples of serum markers for the assessment of fibrosis
NameConstituentsAccuracy (%)
Indirect markers
APRIAST, platelets41958864
FibroTestα2 macroglobulin, α2 and γ globulin, total bilirubin, apolipoprotein A1, γGT87596385
Direct markers
ELFPIIINP, HA, TIMP-1, (age)90.5419992
FibroSpectHA, TIMP-1, γ2 macroglobulin77737476
Table 2 Urinary markers of hepatocellular carcinoma
YearUrinary biomarker
Nucleosides and nucleotides
1974Methylated purines[45]
1976Cyclic GMP[46,47]
Proteins and polyamines
1990TGFα and β[50-52]
2004Urinary trypsin inhibitor[59,60]
1998Spermine, putrescine, spermidine[58]
Metabolite profiles
2009Octanedioic acid, glycine and hypoxanthine[61]
2010Creatinine, carnitine, creatine[62]