Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Hepatol. Aug 18, 2015; 7(17): 2080-2090
Published online Aug 18, 2015. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i17.2080
Table 1 Summary of the status of various immune components in hepatocellular carcinoma
Immune componentStatus in HCCRef.
Dendritic cellsDecreased antigen presentation, decreased numbers, impaired functions[12,13]
MacrophagesPoor antigen presentation, activated Th2 immune responses, promoted Tregs[17,18,20]
Myeloid-derived suppressor cellsExerted suppressive functions through free radicals, arginase activity, and TGF-β[21,22]
NeutrophilsPromoted angiogenesis through metalloproteinase-9[24]
NK cellsDecreased numbers, low cytolytic activity[26,28]
T lymphocytesDecreased frequency, fewer Th1 cytokines, increased expression of inhibitory receptors[36,37]
TregsIncreased frequency, suppressed T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion, inhibited NK cell responses[42,48,86]
Th17 cellsIncreased numbers, incompletely defined role, correlated with disease progression[51,52]
NKT cellsDual roles, increased frequency, promoted Th2 cytokines[55,56]
Th1 cytokinesDecreased in tumor microenvironment, induced CD8+ T-cells[59,61,87]
Th2 cytokinesIncreased levels, correlation with tumor progression[21]
Proinflammatory cytokinesInvolved in pathogenesis of HCC[65,69]
Anti-inflammatory cytokinesIncreased in HCC, correlated with progression[72,73,76]
Chemokine-receptor axisTumor progression and metastasis[78,83,84]