Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Hepatol. Jul 18, 2015; 7(14): 1856-1865
Published online Jul 18, 2015. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i14.1856
Table 1 Clavien system for classification of complications in general surgery and solid organ transplantation
Grade 1Any alteration from the ideal postoperative course, with complete recovery or which can be easily controlled and which fulfills the following general characteristics:
(1) Not life threatening
(2) Not requiring use of drugs other than immunosuppressants, analgesics, antipyretics, anti-inflammatory agents, antiemetic, drugs required for urinary retention or lower urinary tract infection, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidemia or transient hyperglycemia
(3) Requiring only therapeutic procedures that can be performed at the bedside
(4) Postoperative bleeding requiring ≤ 3 units of blood transfusion
(5) Never associated with a prolongation of ICU stay or total hospital stay to more than twice the median stay for the procedure in the population of the study
Grade 2Any complication that is potentially life threatening or results in ICU stay > 5 d, hospital stay > 4 wk for the recipient, but which does not result in residual disability or persistent disease
Grade 3Any complication with residual or lasting functional disability or development of malignant disease
Grade 4Complications that lead to re transplantation (grade 4a) or death (grade 4b)
Table 2 Biliary complications in recipients after live donor liver transplantation
Ref.YearCountryGrafts (n)
Biliary complications (%)
RightLeftLeaksStricturesOverall rate
Ghobrial et al[22]2001United States2025--
Gondolesi et al[23]2004United States96021.922.940.6
Liu et al[24]2004China4107.324.324.3
Giacomoni et al[25]2006Italy23021.721.734.8
Soejima et al[26]2006Japan5013211.525.336.8
Shah et al[27]2007Canada128014.817.126.0
Mita et al[28]2008Japan5226-9.5-
Freise et al[7]2008United States (A2ALL)384027.21835.5
Marubashi et al[29]2009Japan57261.27.28.4
Lin et al[30]2009China----8.9
Wadhawan et al[31]2010India33808.810.319
Kim et al[32]2010South Korea22009.19.1
Soin et al[14]2010India2182623.75
Table 3 Incidence of biliary complications in donors after live donor liver transplantation
Ref.nGraft typeLeak (%)Stricture (%)Overall rate (%)
Iida et al[76]500Right10.61.612.2
El-Meteini et al[77]207Right221.613.04
Taketomi et al[78]69Right--10.1
Lo et al[79]561Right6.11.17.1
Shio et al[75]434Right9.92.111.1
Ghobrial et al[72]393Right90.59.6
Ozgor et al[74]500Right--10.8
European Liver276Right538
Transplant Registry[80]Left