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Copyright ©2012 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Hepatol. Mar 27, 2012; 4(3): 91-98
Published online Mar 27, 2012. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v4.i3.91
Table 1 Potential causes for liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus infection[43]
Viral hepatitisHBV, HCV, (HDV)Co-infection common (up to 10%)
HAV, HEVSelf-limited acute increase in ALT
Drug hepatotoxicityAlcoholLimited data in low and middle income countries
ART1NevirapineHypersensitivity, usually early (< 12 wk)
EfavirenzDirect liver cell stress or hypersensitivity
AbacavirHypersensitivity, (predominantly in HLA B57 carriers)
ddI, d4TMitochondrial toxicity with long-term use
RitonavirSteatosis, metabolic disturbance
TipranavirHepatic failure reported with ritonavir 200 mg
MaravirocHypersensitivity with liver involvement
Anti-TB therapy2RifampicinDrug interactions with ART and direct hepatotoxicity
IsoniazidHepatotoxicity may be increased in HIV
PyrazinamideDose-related hepatotoxicity
Hepatotropic infectionsSchistosomiasisLeads to portal hypertension
LeishmaniasisFever +/- hepatosplenomegaly
Herpes viruses inc EBV CMV HHV6 HSVOften cause raised transaminases, occasionally symptomatic hepatitis
Liver abscessUnlikely to cause chronic liver disease
HIV cholangiopathyUsually when CD4 < 200 cells/μL
NAFLDART-related, prevalence unknown