Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Hepatol. Jan 27, 2021; 13(1): 66-79
Published online Jan 27, 2021. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i1.66
Table 1 Risk factors for the most common biliary complications

StricturesAdvanced recipient age; Female donor; Failure to flush the donor duct; Preceding bile leakage; Acute rejection; Chronic rejection; Hepaticojejunostomy reconstructionHAT; Chronic ductopenic rejection; Blood type ABO incompatibility; PSC, autoimmune hepatitis prolonged warm and cold ischemia times prolonged donor exposure to vasopressors
LeaksActive bleeding at the bile duct end excessive dissection of periductal tissue tension on ductal anastomosisT-tube tract, excessive use of electrocautery incorrect suture of the cystic duct stump
Stones and clotsIschemia, stricture, infection
Biliary cast syndromeAcute cellular rejection, bile stasis, ischemia, infection, sepsis, HAT
HaemobiliaAlcoholic liver disease, high body mass index of recipient; Iatrogenic: PTC, liver biopsy
Table 2 Studies on the effectiveness of maximal stent therapy in post-operative biliary strictures
Treatment duration
Mean number of stents
Number of ERCPs
Success rate
Costamagna et al[41], 20014512.1 mo (range 2-24 mo)3.2 (range 1-6)4.1 (range 2-8)89% (40/45)
Hsieh et at[23], 2012415.3 (range 3.8-8.9)7.0 (range 4-10)4.0 (range 3.0-5.3)100% (41/41)
Morelli et al[43], 200838107 d (range 20-198 d)2.5 (range 1-6)3.4 (range 2-6)87% (33/38)
Pasha et al[90], 2004 253.3 mo (range, 2.2-7 mo)2.0 (range 1-4)3.5 (range 1-9)88% (22 of 25)
Tabibian et al[42], 20106915 mo (range 12-60 mo)3.0 (range 2-7) 2.5 (range 2-5)94% (65/69)