Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Hepatol. Sep 27, 2018; 10(9): 549-557
Published online Sep 27, 2018. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v10.i9.549
Table 1 Risk factors of the transmission of hepatitis C in Egypt through the healthcare system and proposed interventions
Risk factorsProposed interventions
Needle stick injuries or other injuriesInstitute infection control and occupational health programs in all healthcare facilities to reduce occupational exposure, protect against needle stick, and other healthcare related injuries Adequate education and training of healthcare providers Use of safety-engineered devices, such as needleless intravenous medication systems, blunted suture needles Use of needle disposal containers
Surgical or invasive interventions, dental proceduresAppropriate sterilization of surgical and dental instruments Good aseptic techniques practiced during invasive procedures Provide personal protective equipment, such as gloves, gowns, face/eye shields, to be used during procedures with anticipated blood exposure
Exposure to medical equipment, hemodialysis machines and proceduresStrict infection control and prevention policies Universal precautions should be used when caring for all patients
Injection and IV insertionUse of self-sheathing needles, needleless connectors, needleless intravenous medication system, and needle disposal containers
Blood transfusion from poorly screened individuals (false negative anti-HCV)Universal screening of all donors
Organ donationUniversal screening of all donors
Table 2 Direct-acting antiviral regimens available to treat hepatitis C virus genotype 4
1Combination regimen[43,44]Duration (wk)
Glecaprevir-pibrentasvir8 (without cirrhosis)
12 (with cirrhosis)
Ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir ± ribavirin12
Elbasvir-grazoprevir ± ribavirin12-16
Elbasvir-grazoprevir12 (treatment naïve)
Elbasvir-grazoprevir + ribavirin16 (treatment experienced)
Sofosbuvir + ribavirin24
Sofosbuvir + daclatasvir ± ribavirin12
Sofosbuvir + simeprivir ± ribavirin12-24
Table 3 Risk factors of transmission of hepatitis B in Mauritania and proposed interventions
Risk factorsProposed interventions
Direct contact with infected blood and or handling blood or body fluids (job exposure)Rigorous adherence to standard precautions in healthcare settings Completely avoid sharing needles or re-using disposable devices Education of healthcare providers and patients Hepatitis B vaccinations and assessment of response to vaccine (hepatitis B surface antibody) Use of safety-engineered devices and needless infusion systems Use of sharp object disposal containers Strict infection control measures upon cleaning and reusing medical equipment Appropriate screening of blood donors Post-exposure prophylaxis Antiviral therapy
Sharing needles or other equipment (such as cotton, spoons, and water) to inject drugs
Intimate contact with a person with HBVHepatitis B vaccination Avoid sharing toothbrushes, razors, etc.
Multiple sex partners or having unprotected sex with someone who is infected with the virusHepatitis B vaccination Protected sexual intercourse
Mother-to-Child transmissionScreening pregnant women Antiviral therapy to pregnant women with high DNA levels Passive-active immunization of newborns of mothers with HBV Universal vaccination of newborns
Body piercings, tattoos or acupunctureAvoid body piercing and tattoos Strict infection control and prevention policies
IV drug usersAvoid sharing syringes and needles