Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Hepatol. Nov 18, 2016; 8(32): 1354-1369
Published online Nov 18, 2016. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v8.i32.1354
Figure 1
Figure 1 Toll-like receptors signaling pathways. TLR: Toll-like receptors; LPS: Lipopolysaccharide; NF-κB: Nuclear factor; IFNs: Interferons; LBP: LPS-binding protein; TIRF: Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β; MyD88: Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88; TRAM: TRIF-related adaptor molecule; TIRAP: TIR domain-containing adaptor protein; IRAK: IL-1 receptor-associated kinase; TRAF: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor; TBK1: TANK binding kinase-1; IKK: IκB kinase; AP: Activator protein; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase.
Figure 2
Figure 2 Enhanced lipopolysaccharide/toll-like receptors 4 signaling in chronic liver diseases. Induction of anti-viral responses, inflammation, steatosis, fibrosis, and hepatocarcinoma via LPS/TLR4 signaling alongside hepatic fibrosis mediated portal hypertension which further increases bacterial overgrowth and intestinal permeability, creating a positive feedback process. TLR4: Toll-like receptors 4; LPS: Lipopolysaccharide.