Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023.
World J Gastroenterol. Jun 7, 2023; 29(21): 3362-3378
Published online Jun 7, 2023. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v29.i21.3362
Table 1 Main characteristics of the included studies in the systematic review and meta-analysis
Serial No.
Study design
mean ± SD
Male, n
Measure of NAFLD
Measure of NAFLD
1Calapod et al[27] RomaniaProspective descriptive study477966.32 ± 13.7257.20%Imaging evidence (ultrasound or computer tomography)Biochemical enzymes (liver function test) within the past 12 mo
2Campos-Varela et al[28]SpainProspective observational (cohort) study2712955.25 ± 11.6949%Liver steatosis by hepatic steatosis indexTransient elastography by controlled attenuation parameter
3Chang et al[29]South KoreaRetrospective cohort study20821040-30.72% FLI index
4Chen et al[30]United StatesRetrospective single-center cohort study17816462.6 ± 15.653.50% Liver steatosisImaging evidence of steatosis > 30 d before COVID-19 diagnosis, or hepatic steatosis index
5Çoraplı et al[31]TurkeyRetrospective cohort study106308-56.04%Hepatic-to-splenic attenuation ratio
6Davidov-Derevynko et al[32]IsraelSingle center retrospective cohort study4733558.6 ± 18.661%Imaging, previous medical records, admission fibrosis-4Prior liver enzymes
7Demir et al[33]TurkeyRetrospective cohort study34927051.6 ± 9.6558.60% Fibrosis-4 index
8Ji et al[34]ChinaCohort193543.6 ± 14.158.6Fibrosis-4 index, APRI, ultrasound
9Effenberger et al[35]AustriaProspective study1220-40.62% Liver stiffness measurements and controlled attenuation parameter with a fibro scanLiver and spleen sonography and elastography
10Elfeki et al[36]United StatesRetrospective cohort study8828563.3 ± 14.852%Prior data lab values
11Forlano et al[14]United KingdomRetrospective cohort study61132-60%Fibrosis-4 indexImaging (either ultrasound or computerized tomography) or past medical history
12Hashemi et al[37]United StatesRetrospective cohort5529463.4 ± 16.555.4%Hepatic steatosis on any prior imaging studies or liver histology
13Huang et al[38]ChinaRetrospective cohort study8619443.6 ± 17.852.10%Hepatic steatosis index
14Hussain et al[39]PakistanCross sectional study876359.73 ± 11.3556%Clinical parameters like hepatomegaly and lab parameters like AST, ALT
15Kim et al[40]United StatesObservational cohort study45641156.9 ± 14.554.70%Fibrosis by magnetic resonance elastographyFibro scan, fibrosis-4, or biopsy
16Madan et al[41]IndiaCase control study289157-64.5%Liver attenuation index
17Marjot et al[42]United StatesCohort study32236758 ± 15.662.40%Reported by clinician
18Mushtaq et al[13]QatarProspective study320269-84.71% Hepatic steatosis index
19Romero-Cristóbal et al[43]SpainProspective observational (cohort) study819659.58 ± 13.7971.96Fibrosis-4 index
20Rentsch et al[44]United StatesRetrospective cohort study37713965.8 ± 7.895.4Fibrosis-4 index
21Shao et al[45]ChinaObservational cohort study378460.6 ± 13.564.46% Liver enzyme/GGT twice upper limit of normal
22Targher et al[46]ChinaCohort study5043-48%Fibrosis-4NAFLD fibrosis score
23Tignanelli et al[47]United StatesRetrospective cohort study9342596251 ± 23.756%Elevated ALT level on 3 separate dates
24Trivedi et al[48]United StatesCase control study4527465 (median)50%Abdominal imaging (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or ultrasound)
25Vázquez-Medina et al[49]MexicoRetrospective case control study2996054.3 ± 14.6922.01% Fibrosis-4 index
26Moctezuma-Velázquez et al[50]MexicoRetrospective cohort study35911151.6 ± 14.863%Computed tomography scans
27Vrsaljko et al[51]Republic of CroatiaProspective observational (cohort) study1209659.3 ± 12.663.43% Ultrasound Difference between liver and spleen computed tomography attenuation
28Wang et al[52]ChinaRetrospective cohort study86132-50.40% Ultrasound parameters
29Yao et al[53]ChinaRetrospective cohort study384843.2 ± 15.4558.10%Hepatic steatosis indexNAFLD fibrosis score
30Yoo et al[54]South KoreaRetrospective cohort study629561--Hepatic steatosis index, FLI, claims based NAFLD
31Younossi et al[55]United StatesObservational cohort study5532736-49.55% Abdominal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, computer tomography, ultra-sound
32Zhou et al[56]ChinaCohort study555542.1 ± 11.474.50%Computed tomography