Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Gastroenterol. Oct 28, 2020; 26(40): 6141-6162
Published online Oct 28, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i40.6141
Table 1 Common treatments based on microbiota-gut-liver-brain axis
TreatmentMechanismExampleTreated diseasesRef.       
ProbioticsReduce depression and alter brain activityBifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum NCC3001Irritable bowel syndrome[36]
Regulate immunity and diminish inflammationVSL#3Ulcerative colitis[61]
Modulate gut microbiota, restore the intestinal barrier function and prevent mesenteric artery endothelial dysfunction, as well as enhance bile acids excretion,LGGNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease; hepatic encephalopathy; alcoholic liver disease[115,141,168]
Reduce ammonia levels by reducing gut microbiota imbalancesLactobacillus and Bifidobacterium speciesHepatic encephalopathy[143]
FMTModulate gut microbiota, reduce endotoxin and inflammation factors, as well as reduce neuroinflammationIrritable bowel syndrome; inflammatory bowel disease; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; alcoholic liver disease; hepatic encephalopathy[119,148]
AntibioticModulate gut microbiota and their end-products, as well as improve the cognitive functionRifaximinHepatic encephalopathy; irritable bowel syndrome[18,37]
PsychotherapyImprove mental healthCBTIrritable bowel syndrome; inflammatory bowel disease[38,39]
Acupuncture and moxibustionRegulate gut microbiota, repair mucosal tissue damage and improve gut mucosal immunityMoxibustionIrritable bowel syndrome; inflammatory bowel disease[45,66]
Improve the balance of the HPA axis and anxiety behaviorsEA and MBFunctional dyspepsia[68]
Regulate gut-brain peptides and promote the gastric empty rateHerbal cake-separated moxibustionAlcoholic liver disease[96]
Herbaceous MedicationsImprove gastrointestinal function,DA-9701 (Motilitone)Functional dyspepsia[88]
Increase the production of ghrelin, cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal peptidesXiangsha Liujunzi DecoctionFunctional dyspepsia[89]
Increase the levels of motilin, gastrin and gastric emptying rateXiaoErFuPi granulesFunctional dyspepsia[90]
Regulate gut microbiota and promote the gastric empty rateMAFunctional dyspepsia[91]
Treat both gastrointestinal and psychological symptomsRikkunshitoFunctional dyspepsia[92]
Regulate gut mucosal barrier, lipid metabolism and liver functionDachaihu decoctionNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease[122]
PolyphenolModulate gut microbiota, reduce inflammation factors and alleviate the pathological injuries,Raw Bowl Tea polyphenolNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease[126]
Change the metabolism of bile acidsGreen tea polyphenolNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease[127]