Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Gastroenterol. Apr 21, 2020; 26(15): 1726-1732
Published online Apr 21, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i15.1726
Table 1 Clinical features of the main spontaneous porto-systemic shunts
SPSS typeFrequencyClinical presentation (if any)Laterality
Gastrorenal shunt80%-85% of patients with gastric varicesGastric varices bleeding, less frequently hepatic encephalopathy or portal vein thrombosis if very largeLeft
Gastrocaval shuntLess frequent than gastrorenal shuntGastric varices bleedingLeft
Splenorenal shunt14%-21% of patients with cirrhosisHepatic encephalopathy; Portal vein thrombosisLeft
Mesorenal shuntUncommonHepatic encephalopathyCentral
Paraumbilical shunt6%-30% of patients with portal hypertensionHepatic encephalopathy Portal vein thrombosisRight
Rectal varicesRareLower gastro-intestinal bleedingRight
Esophageal varices40%-80% of patients with cirrhosisHematemesis or melenaRight