Systematic Reviews
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Gastroenterol. Jun 7, 2019; 25(21): 2675-2682
Published online Jun 7, 2019. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v25.i21.2675
Table 1 Characteristics of included studies
Ref.RegionDesignnMale (%)Mean minimal PPI use durationNumber of episodesHE level1Age (yr)Risk estimate (95%CI)
Dam et al[20], 2016DenmarkRetrospective case-control study86586.7At least 1 wk prior to HE episodeFollow-up ended at the onset of the first HE episode2-457.4Current PPI use vs current nonuse, HR: 1.36 (95%CI: 1.01-1.84)
Lin et al[21], 2014ChinaRetrospective case-control study16578.2More than 5 d prior to HE episodeFollow-up ended at the onset of the first HE episode2-444.0PPI use vs nonuse, OR: 4.392 (95%CI: 1.604-12.031)
Nardelli et al[12], 2018RomeProspective observational study31071.3PPI use at least 4 wk prior to the admissionFollow-up ended at the onset of the first HE episode2-462.0PPI use at least 4 weeks prior to admission vs. PPI nonuse at least 4 wk prior to admission OR: 3.96 (95%CI: 2.27-6.92)
Sturm et al[13], 2018GermanyRetrospective observational study39768.1NRFollow-up ended at the onset of the first HE episode1-459.3PPI use vs nonuse, OR: 2.29 (95%CI: 1.86-6.46)
Tergast et al[14], 2018GermanyRetrospective longitudinal cohort study24967.9PPI intake within 7 d prior to enrollmentNR3-456.8PPI dosage > 40 mg/d vs PPI dosage > 10-40 mg/d, HR: 1.85 (95%CI: 0.87-3.66)
Tsai et al[22], 2016TaiwanRetrospective case-control study233274.2PPI intake at least 30 d prior to enrollmentFollow-up ended at the onset of the first HE episodeNR53.1(cDDD > 365 vs cDDD ≤ 30) OR: 3.01 (95%CI: 1.78-5.10); 120 < cDDD < 365 vs cDDD ≤ 30, OR: 1.51 (95%CI: 1.11-2.06) 30 < cDDD < 120 vs cDDD ≤ 30, OR: 1.41 (95%CI: 1.09-1.84)
Zhu et al[15], 2018ChinaRetrospective case-control study25663.3PPI use during hospitalizationHE episode during hospitalization2-458.3PPI use during hospitalization vs nonuse during hospitalization OR: 3.481 (95%CI: 1.651-7.340)
Table 2 Quality assessment of included studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale
Author (year)Subject selectionGroup comparabilityExposure measurementTotal score
Dam et al[20], 20162237
Lin et al[21], 20143238
Nardelli et al[12], 20183238
Sturm et al[13], 20184239
Tergast et al[14], 20182237
Tsai et al[22], 20163238
Zhu et al[15], 20183238