Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Gastroenterol. Nov 21, 2018; 24(43): 4870-4879
Published online Nov 21, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i43.4870
Table 1 Reported cases of non-infectious pediatric acute acalculous cholecystitis associated with immune-mediated disorders (2000-2018)
Ref.Age (yr)SexComorbidityClinical manifestations
Basiratnia et al[13], 200610MSystemic lupus erythematosusRUQ pain, fever, nausea, vomiting
Shin et al[14], 20075MNephrotic syndromeAbdominal pain, vomiting
Mendonca et al[15], 200912FSystemic lupus erythematosusAbdominal pain, anorexia, weight loss, nausea, vomiting
Lee et al[16], 2014N/AN/ASystemic lupus erythematosus (n = 2); nephrotic syndrome (n = 1)N/A (patients were included in a large case series of pediatric AAC)
Sanches et al[17], 201411FJuvenile dermatomyositisRUQ pain, nausea, vomiting
Ozkaya et al[18], 20167MHenoch-Shonlein purpuraAbdominal pain, jaundice
Yi et al[19], 2016N/AN/AKawasaki disease (n = 28)N/A (patients were included in a large case series of pediatric AAC)
Table 2 Reported cases of pediatric acute acalculous cholecystitis associated with specific infections (2000-2018)
Ref.Age (yr)SexComorbidityClinical manifestations
Ashley et al[28], 20004MB. abortusRUQ pain, fever, constipation, anorexia
Ciftci et al[29], 20017MHAVAbdominal pain, fever, jaundice
Lo et al[30], 20025MSalmonella group DAbdominal pain, fever, vomiting, diarrhea
Batra et al[31], 200312MS. aureusRUQ pain, fever, jaundice, maculopapular rash
Garel et al[32], 20034MSalmonella spp.Abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, diarrhea
Saha et al[33], 20057FP. falciparumRUQ pain, fever
Axelrod et al[44], 20073FS. typhiAbdominal pain, fever, vomiting
Kuttiat et al[35], 20078 and 9MP. falciparum and P. vivaxRUQ pain, fever, vomiting (P. vivax)
Lagona et al[36], 20074FEBVRUQ pain, fever, jaundice, vomiting, anorexia
Anthoine-Milhomme et al[37], 20077FPlasmodium spp.Abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, jaundice
Prassouli et al[38], 200713FEBVAbdominal pain, fever, vomiting, jaundice
Gora-Gebka et al[39], 20089 and 4FEBV + CMV and EBVRUQ pain, fever, jaundice, enlargement of liver and spleen
Kumar et al[40], 20083FP. falciparumAbdominal pain, fever, vomiting
Bouyahia et al[41] 200814MHAVAbdominal pain, vomiting, fever
Attilakos et al[42], 20095MEBVFever, jaundice, enlargement of liver and spleen
Sureshet al[43], 20092FHAVAbdominal pain, fever, vomiting
Souza et al[44], 200916MHAVAbdominal pain, fever, vomiting
Arroud et al[45], 201111MHAVAbdominal pain, fever, vomiting, jaundice
Herek et al[46], 20119MHAVAbdominal pain, fever, vomiting, jaundice
Prashanth et al[47], 201212FHAVAbdominal pain, vomiting
Newcombe et al[48], 20139MC. burnetiiN/A
Gnassingbe et al[49], 20135-134 M, 2 FS. typhiMainly abdominal pain, fever and vomiting
Poddighe et al[50], 20147FEBVRUQ, fever, vomiting, jaundice, liver enlargement.
Kim et al[51], 201410FEBVRUQ pain, fever, cervical lymphadenopathy
Fretzajas et al[52], 201411 and 12FEBVAbdominal pain, fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly
Strehle et al[53], 201414FEBVFever, RUQ pain, vomiting, anorexia, eyelid swelling
Suga K et al[54], 20146FEBVAbdominal pain, epigastralgia
Alkoury et al[55], 201515FEBVAbdominal pain, fever, vomiting
Pawlowska-Kamieniak et al[56], 201517FEBVRUQ pain, fever, anorexia
Majdalani et al[56], 201616FEBVAbdominal pain, fever, vomiting
Gomes et al[58], 20163MHHV-6Abdominal pain, vomiting, generalized maculo-papular skin rash
Ismaili-Jaha et al[59], 20181, 2, 4, 10F, F, F, MAscaris lumbricoidesMainly fever, diarrhea, vomiting
Aguilera-Alonso et al[60], 20185FP. falciparumAbdominal pain, fever, jaundice
Table 3 Main therapeutic approach in the reported cases of pediatric acute acalculous cholecystitis (2000-2018)
Author (etiology, yr, country)Age (yr)/sexSurgeryAntibioticObservations
Ashley et al[28] (B. Abortus, 2000, United States)4-M-Cotrimoxazole rifampinDiagnosis through blood culture (initial antibiotic therapy with ampicillin, metronidazole and gentamicin)
Croteau et al[75] (N/A, 2001, United States)2-MLaparoscopic cholecystectomySecond-generation cephalosporinRemoval of gallbladder after AAC recurrence
Lo et al[30] (Salmonella group D, 2002, Taiwan)5-MLaparotomic cholecystectomyCeftriaxoneRemoval of gallbladder for AAC complicated by empyema
Batra et al[31] (S. Aureus, 2003, United States)12-MLaparotomic cholecystectomyAmpicillin/sulbactam Ceftriaxone, metronidazoleAAC developed for bacteriemia during osteomyelitis.
Saha et al[33] (P. Falciparum, 2005, India)7-F-CeftriaxoneIntravenous quinine as soon as definitive diagnosis was achieved
Basiratnia et al[13] (SLE, 2006, Iran)10-MLaparotomic cholecystectomyCeftriaxone, metronidazoleHigh-dose prednisolone for 3 d. Surgical approach due to poor response (not specified)
Kuttiat et al[35] (P. falciparum and P. Vivax, 2007, India)8-M 9-M-CeftriaxoneIntravenous quinine as soon as definitive diagnosis was achieved
Lagona et al[36] (EBV, 2007, Greece)4-F--Only supportive therapy and close follow-up
Anthoine-Milhomme et al[37] (Plasmodium spp., 2007, France/Ivory Coast)7-F-Amoxicillin triamphenicolHalofantrin was started upon diagnosis
Prassouli et al[38] (EBV, 2007, Greece)13-F-Cefotaxime, tobramicin, metronidazole
Shin et al[14] (Nephrotic syndrome, 2007, South Korea)5-M-Ampicillin, cefotaximeDeflazacort 60 mg/m2
Gora-Gebkaet al[39] (EBV + CMV and EBV, 2008, Poland)9-F, 4-F-Cefotaxime
Bouyahia et al[41] (HAV, 2008, Tunisia)14-M-Cefotaxime, gentamicin
Suresh et al[43] (HAV, 2009, India)2-F--
Souza et al[44] (HAV, 2009, Brazil)16-M--
Mendonca et al[15], (SLE, 2009, Brazil)12-F--Concomitant SNC vasculitis findings: treated with high-dose prednisolone for 3 d.
McNaughton et al[76] (N/A, 2010, United States)14-MLaparoscopic cholecystectomyAntibiotics (not specified)
Karkera et al[77] (N/A, 2010, India)11-MLaparotomic cholecystectomyAntibiotics (not specified)Both patients developed complicated (perforated) AAC
Arroud et al[45] (HAV, 2011, Morocco)11-M-Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin
Herek et al[46] (HAV, 2011, Turkey)9-M--
Pal K[24], (Type I Diabetes mellitus, 2011, Saudi Arabia)11-MLaparoscopic cholecystectomyAntibiotics (not specified)Emphysematous AAC associated with secondary appendicitis. Bile bacteriology revealed E. Coli and Ebterococcus spp
Prashanth et al[47] (HAV, 2012, India)12-F--
Newcombe et al[48] (C. Burnetii, 2013, Australia)9-M-Ampicillin, gentamicin, metronidazoleAAC as probable complication of infection-associated anti-phospholipid syndrome
Shihabuddin et al[22] (Cystic fibrosis, 2013, United States)10-F-Antibiotics (not specified)
Poddighe et al[50] (EBV, 2014, Italy)7-F-CefotaximePatient coming from South-East Asia
Kim et al[51] (EBV, 2014, South Korea)10-F-Antibiotics (not specified)
Strehle et al[53] (EBV, 2014, United Kingdom)14-F-Antibiotics (not specified)
Sanches et al[17] (JDM, 2014, Portugal)11-F--high-dose prednisolone for 3 d
Suga et al[54] (EBV, 2014, Japan)6-F--Only supportive therapy
Alkoury et al[55] (EBV, 2015, United States)15-F-N/A
Pawlowska-Kamieniak et al[56] (EBV, 2015, Poland)17-F-Antibiotics (not specified)UDCA, analgesics, and relaxants
Muta et al[78] (N/A, 2015, Japan)6-MLaparoscopic cholecystectomyN/ACase of eosinophilic cholecysitis without evidence of other eosinophilic disease
Majdalani et al[57] (EBV, 2016, Lebanon)16-F-Ciprofloxacin, metronidazole
Rodà et al[79] (EBV, 2016, Spain)2-M-CeftriaxoneConcomitant nephrotic syndrome and EBV infection
Özkaya et al[18] (Henoch-Schonlein purpura, 2016, Turkey)7-MLaparotomic cholecystectomyAntibiotics (not specified)
Gomes et al[58] - (HHV-6, 2016, Portugal)3-M--
Naselli et al[23] (ALL-T, 2017, United Kingdom)12-M-Piperacillin-tazobactam, metronidazoleNeutropenia during chemotherapy (dexamethasone, daunorubicin, vincristine, PEG-asparaginase)
Aguilera-Alonso et al[60] (Plasmodium falciparum, 2018, Spain/Equatorial Guinea)5-F-Clindamycin, cefotaxime, metronidazoleIntravenous quinine as soon as definitive diagnosis was achieved
Ismaili-Jaha et al[59] (Ascaris lumbricoides, Albania, 2018)1-F, 2-F, 4-F, 10-M-Antibiotics (not specified)Mebendazole
Ng et al[80] (N/A, concomitant pneumonia, 2018, Australia)7-M-Ceftriaxone, metronidazole