Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Gastroenterol. Jul 7, 2018; 24(25): 2673-2685
Published online Jul 7, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i25.2673
Table 1 Overview of the conventional therapies for inflammatory bowel disease
Therapeutic agentActive compoundMode of actionRef.
Aminosalicylates (ASA)5-ASADecreases MPO activity, inhibits β-catenin activation[23]
Inhibits the generation and activity of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, and TNF-α
ImmunosuppressantsAzathioprineClinical remission[25]
6-mercaptopurineMucosal healing
Cyclosporine A
AntibioticsMetronidazoleDecrease disease activity index[26]
CiprofloxacinMaintain remission
Biological therapyInfliximabNeutralizes TNF-α[27]
AdalimumabReduces inflammation
Table 2 Role of nutrients and diets against inflammatory bowel disease
Base materialMain compounds/agentsMode of actionRef.
Lactic acid bacteriaLactobacillus suntoryeusInhibited the activation of TLR-4-linked NF-κB activation[32]
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis S-SU2Prevented the colonic shortening, lowering of liver and thymus weights, and spleen enlargement[33]
Lactobacillus paracasei LS2 (from kimchi)Increased IL-10[34]
Reduced TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β and MPO activity
Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 (NZ-HO)Reduced CD11b+ F4/80+ and CD11b+ Gr-1+[35]
Lactobacillus plantarum AN1Increased IL-10; reduced IL-1α and IL-6[36]
Lactobacillus sakei K040706Ameliorated the atrophy of colon length, mucosal damage, and spleen enlargement[38]
BifidobacteriaBifidobacterium bifidum 231Reduced the expression of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6[41]
Bifidobacterium longum CCM7952Suppressed NF-κB, STAT3, and TLR4 expression[31]
Increased IL-10; Decreased IL-1β
Engaged TLR2; Contained NOD2
Improved epithelial barrier
Dietary fibers and prebiotics
Konjac glucomannanKonjac glucomannan hydrolysateReduced bowel movement, diarrhea, blood in feces, abdominal pain, and flatulence[44]
Glucanβ-(1,3–1,6)-d-glucanImproved fecal output[45]
Oat β-glucanReduced visceral pain[46]
Lowered MPO, NO, and MDA
Inhibited the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS
Glucan from mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius)Reduced histological damage[47]
Bacterial β-(1,3)-glucanReduced the expression of IL-1β[48]
Reversed Treg reduction
NanofiberCellulose nanofiber from seaweedDecreased NK cell defects and IgA production[49]
PrebioticsCellulose nanofiber from pearImproved intestinal tissue injury[50]
Suppressed the activation of NF-κB
FructooligosaccharidesSuppressed colon atrophy[51]
Suppressed the activation of NF-κB
Goat milk oligosaccharideDecreased IFN-γ, IL-17, and TNF-α levels[52]
InulinIncreased LAB population[53]
Decreased inflammation
Improved mucosal damage
Decreased TNFα, COX-2, IL-2, and IL-6
Vitamins1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3Suppressed TNF-α[57]
Enhanced IL-10 production
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3Reduced IFN-γ[58]
Vitamin D3Increased CD+ T cells and IL-6[59]
Protected mitochondria
Vitamin AInhibited nuclear respiratory factor (NFR)-1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM)[60]
Table 3 Role of natural extracts and phytochemicals against inflammatory bowel disease
Base materialMain compound/agentMode of actionRef.
MushroomCoriolus versicolor extractReduced TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6[68]
Reduced STAT1 and STAT6
Cordiceps militaris extractDecreased epithelial damage[70]
Suppressed iNOS and TNF-α mRNA expression
Inonotus obliquus extractSuppressed TNF-α, COX-2, and IFN-γ[73]
Ganoderma lucidum extractInhibited MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation[74]
Decreased histological score
Fruit extracts
Prunus mumePrunus mume extractSuppressed mucosal damage, TNF-α, and iNOS expressions[75]
PomegranatePomegranate extract (ellagitannins and ellagic acid)Decreased the expression of TNF-α, COX-2, IL-4, and STAT6[77]
Prevented the translocation of NF-κB[78]
CranberryCranberry fruit/extractModulated NF-κB and IL-1β signaling[79]
Blueberry extractAttenuated colon shortening
Suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines[80]
Averrhoa bilimbiAverrhoa bilimbi L. extractPrevented oxidation
Inhibited pro-inflammatory mediators[81]
Aronia melanocarpaArronia melanocarpa juiceReduced NF-κB translocation
GingerGinger extract (zingerone)Decreased mucosal injury[82]
Marine foodDecrease the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines[83]
Haliotis discus hannai Ino extractImproved colonic damage[84]
Decreased TBARS concentration
Suppressed NF-κB and IL-1β
Green algae extractSuppressed colonic tissue damage
Downregulated IFN-γ and IL-4
Ameliorated colonic tissue damage
Decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines
PhytochemicalsApple polyphenolsReduced COX-2 and TNF-α[85]
Recovered transglutaminase protein
ResveratrolSuppressed NF-κB and TNF-α[86]
Reduced clinical score
CardamoninReduced histopathological damage[18]
Reduced iNOS, NF-κB, TNF-α, COX-2, and caspase-3
Suppressed IL-1β and TNF-α
Ginsenoside Rg1Reduced colonic damage and DAI[90]
Improved colon shortening and DAI
SulforaphaneSuppressed STAT3 expression[91]
CurcuminReduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and MPO[92]
Attenuated morphological damage