Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017.
World J Gastroenterol. May 21, 2017; 23(19): 3388-3395
Published online May 21, 2017. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i19.3388
Table 1 Information about typical natural herbal formula "Sho-saiko-to" for treatment of liver diseases
Natural medicineRef.Literature typeEffects and mechanisms/possible mechanismsAdverse reactions
Sho-saiko-toShimizu[4], 2000ReviewPreventive and therapeutic effects on experimental hepatic fibrosis; inhibition of oxidative stress in hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cellsNot mentioned
Yamashiki et al[5], 1992ArticleEfficacious against chronic liver diseases, malignant diseases and acute infectious diseasesNot mentioned
Yamashiki et al[6], 1999ArticleSuppressing liver cancer development; increasing interleukin-12 production and macrobiotic activityNot mentioned
in liver cirrhosis patients
Lee et al[15], 2011Review1 Protecting against development of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patientsInterstitial pneumonia and acute respiratory failure
2 Reducing hepatocyte necrosis and enhancing liver function
3 Inhibiting hepatic fibrosis by reducing activation of stellate cells
4 Inhibiting hepatic lipid peroxidation, promoting matrix degradation, and suppressing extracellular matrix accumulation
Table 2 Information of some natural herbal medicines for treatment of liver diseases
Natural medicinesRef.Literature typeEffects and mechanisms/possible mechanismsAdverse reactions
SilymarinBahmani et al[18], 2015ReviewAntioxidant; anti-inflammatory; cell permeability regulator and membrane stabilizer; stimulating liver regeneration and inhibiting deposition of collagen fibersMild gastrointestinal disorders
Zhu et al[21], 2016ReviewAnticancer by regulating cancer cells growth, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, such as hepatocellular carcinoma; antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-fibrotic, anti-proliferative, and antiviral activitiesNot mentioned
Csupor et al[22], 2016ReviewStimulating liver regeneration; antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective; treatment of mushroom poisoning, hepatitis, cirrhosis and fibrosis of liverMild gastrointestinal
and allergic reactions
Long pepperKumar et al[23], 2011ReviewHepatoprotective activity; treatment for chronic bronchitis, asthma, constipation, gonorrhea, paralysis of tongue, diarrhea, cholera, chronic malaria, viral hepatitis, stomachache, spleen diseases, cough, and tumorsContraceptive activity;
should be avoided during pregnancy and lactation
Mansour et al[24], 2009ArticleIncreasing activity of transglutaminase; enhancing antioxidant activities in fibrotic liver; anti-tussive, anti-asthmatic, anti-allergic, antitubercular, antipyretic, hypotensive, hypoglycemic, antihelmentic and coronary vasodilatoryNot mentioned
Jiang et al[25], 2013ReviewAnti-hepatitis B virus activity in vitroNot mentioned
Holy BasilLahon et al[26], 2011ArticleHepatoprotective activity and synergistic with silymarin; anti-inflammatory activityNot mentioned
Baliga et al[27], 2013ReviewAnti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, antistress, and immunomodulatory activitiesNot mentioned but being considered non-toxic
Singh et al[28], 2007ReviewAnti-inflammatory, antipyretic, hypotensive, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory activities; chemopreventive and hypolipidemic activitiesNot mentioned
Prakash et al[30], 2005ReviewAntifertility, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiemetic, antispasmodic, analgesic, adaptogenic and diaphoretic actionsNot mentioned
Table 3 Information of some natural plants for treatment of liver problems
Natural plantsRef.Literature typeEffects and mechanisms/possible mechanismsAdverse reactions
CoffeeMasterton et al[10], 2010ReviewPotential to reduce risk of abnormal liver function tests, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinomaClinical dependency, withdrawal,
tolerance or intoxication
Wadhawan et al[33], 2016ReviewReducing incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma rates, and decreasing mortalityNot mentioned
AppleCodoñer-Franch et al[34], 2013ArticleProtective action against oxidative stress induced by tamoxifen in ratsNot mentioned
Sharma et al[35], 2016ArticleAntioxidant activity; able to induce protein expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 to inhibit CCl4-induced apoptosisNot mentioned
ResveratrolBurns et al[38], 2002Reviewanti-oxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and antitumor propertiesNot mentioned
Andrade et al[39], 2014ArticleImproving lipid metabolism, decreasing incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, pro-inflammatory profile in liver of mice fed with obesity-inducible dietsNot mentioned