Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Gastroenterol. Aug 21, 2016; 22(31): 7099-7110
Published online Aug 21, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i31.7099
Table 1 Bioactive proteins from niche cells maintain the proliferative status in intestinal stem cells
Niche cellBioactive proteinReceptorTarget pathwayISC proliferationISC differentiation
Paneth cellWnt 3LRP5/6 and FrizzledWnt/β-catenin/
Paneth cellDll1/4Notch 1/2Notch
Paneth cellEGFEGFRRas/Raf/Mek/Erk/MAPK/
Table 2 Debate on intestinal stem cells’ locations and their relevant characteristics
LocationRepresentative research byNumber per cryptSensitivity to IRCell-cycleCell-divisionDNA segregation
CBCClevers H’s team14-16Less than mature cells21.5 hSymmetryRandom
4+ positionPotten CS’s team4-6Apoptosis upon receiving 1 cGyApproximately 24 hAsymmetryHierarchy
Table 3 Characteristics of crypt basement column cells stem cells and reserve intestinal stem cells
ISC typeMain locationCell-cycle status under intact conditionsDifferentiating capabilityForeign stimuli-induced responseLeading pathwayTypical marker genes
CBC stem cellCrypt basementActiveYesApoptosisWnt/β-cateninLgr5
Reserve ISC4+ positionSlowYesProliferationUnknown but independent of Wnt/β-cateninBmi1, HopX, Lrig1, mTERT
Table 4 Two systems for expanding intestinal stem cells
Established byPublished yearSystem typeSubstrateSupplemental factorMediumCultured contentExpanding duration of cultured content
Sato et al[23]20093DMatrigel containing laminin α1 and α2N2, B27, Wnt3, EGF, Noggin, R-spondin1, Jagged-1 and Y-27632 dihydrochlorideSerum-freeISCsUp to 1 yr
Ootani et al[62]20093DCollagen gel containing collagen I and III/Containing 20% of FCS in mediumSmall pieces of intestinal tissueUp to 1 yr