Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Gastroenterol. Jul 7, 2016; 22(25): 5728-5741
Published online Jul 7, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i25.5728
Table 1 Diagnosis methods for hepatopulmonary syndrome
Diagnosis methodsFindings in HPS patientsLimitationsAims
Arterial blood gas analysisAaO2≥ 15 mmHg or ≥ 20 mmHg in patients over 64 years oldConsensus criteriaDiagnosis of HPS
Pulse oximetryO2 Saturation < 96% or 97%Low sensitivityScreening HPS and follow up
Contrast echocardiographyBubbles in the left cavities between the fourth and sixth beatVarious agents usedDiagnosis of IPVD
Transthoracic vs transoesophageal
99mTc-MAACerebral uptake ≥ 6%Low sensitivityDiagnosis and quantify of IPVD
Thoracic X-rayInterstitial markingsUnspecificRule out other concomitant pulmonary diseases
Thorax CT scanMeasurement of the caliber of the peripheral arteries and the bronchial/arterial relationshipMore studies neededRule out other concomitant pulmonary diseases
Vascular patternsLocation of IPVD
Pulmonary arteriographyVascular patternsLow sensitivityType II HPS suspected
Respiratory function testsNormal or reduction FVC or FEV1UnspecificRule out other concomitant pulmonary diseases
Reduction in DLCOcoLow sensitivity
Laboratory testsvon Willebrand factor antigen elevatedMore studies neededScreening HPS