Copyright ©2010 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Nov 28, 2010; 16(44): 5523-5535
Published online Nov 28, 2010. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i44.5523
Table 1 Overview of septic animal models displaying advantages and disadvantages (adapted from[18-20])
Endotoxin model
Endotoxins play a significant role in the pathogenesis of sepsis
Simple model
Using sublethal doses, providing active resuscitation, using continuous infusion and the use of intraperitoneal injection are four measures reproducing more accurately the human situation
Lipopolysaccharides is stable (compared to the use of bacteria), therefore the model is more accurate and reproducible compared to the bacterial infection models
Exaggerated release of host cytokines
Most of the time only Gram-negative sepsis
Single toxin does not mimic human sepsis
Therapies shown to be effective in animal models, failed in clinical trials
Rats are very resistant compared to humans
Lack of an infectious focus
Bacterial infection model
Endotoxins play a significant role in the pathogenesis of sepsis
Reduction of the dose, increasing the infusion time, giving active resuscitation can prolong survival and render the model more comparable to the human situation
Uncommon clinical occurrence
High doses of bacteria are needed
Significant interlaboratory variability
Survival is short
Serum cytokine responses are transient and exaggerated
Peritonitis model: cecal ligation puncture model
Resemblance to clinical situation
Peritoneal contamination with a mixed flora
The cytokine response is comparable to human situation
Severity can be adjusted by increasing the needle puncture size or the number of punctures, delaying mortality over several days
The model needs a surgical procedure that by itself may induce ileus
Difficult to control the magnitude of septic challenge
Variability within the cecal ligation puncture model