Copyright ©2010 Baishideng.
World J Gastroenterol. Jan 7, 2010; 16(1): 1-14
Published online Jan 7, 2010. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i1.1
Table 1 Summary of freeze-rate comparison studies
SpeciesCryoprotectantFreeze rateStorage temperatureRef.
RatDMSO-1°C/min to -38°C (with cooling shock) then liquid nitrogenLiquid nitrogen[61]
Dog, monkey, humanDMSO-1.9°C/min from 4°C to -30°C, then -30°C from -30°C to -150°CLiquid nitrogen[57]
RatDMSO-38°C/minLiquid nitrogen[59]
Slow variable
Optimized variable rate
HumanDMSO-1.9°C/min from 4°C to -30°C, then -30°C from -30°C to -150°CLiquid nitrogen[51]
RatDMSOCooling in 10 min down to 0°C, 8 min at 0°C, in 4 min down to -8°C, in 0.1 min down to -28°C, in 2 min down to -33°C, in 2 min up to -28°C, in 16 min down to -60°C, in 4 min down to -100°C (variable rate)Liquid nitrogen[60]
HumanDMSOVariable rateLiquid nitrogen[6]
Dog, monkey, humanDMSO-1.9°C/min from 4°C to -30°C, then -30°C from -30°C to -150°CLiquid nitrogen[58]
RatDMSOVariable rateLiquid nitrogen[39]
PigDMSOOptimized[59]Liquid nitrogen[22]
Modified variable
Table 2 In vitro evaluation of post-thawing quality of hepatocytes
Hepatocyte in vitro modelCryopreservation protocolParameters evaluated: impairment following C/TParameters evaluated: no impairment following C/TRef.
Rat and humanPre-incubationPlatingCYP induction[17]
-20°C, -70°C, liquid nitrogen
PorcineSlow freezing protocol up to -80°CTrypan blue exclusion test[23]
Ammonia clearance
RatSlow freezing protocol up to -80°CTrypan blue exclusion test[25]
Ammonia clearance
Human20% DMSO, 40% FCSTrypan blue exclusion testATP[63]
Slow freezing protocolPlatingUrea synthesis
LDH release
PorcineFreezing boxes or slow freezing protocolCYPPlating[72]
Glycogen synthesis
Rat and mouseSlow freezing protocolPlating[41]
Uptake of neutral red
Protein synthesis
PorcineImmediate cryopreservationProtein synthesisTrypan blue exclusion test[30]
Serum freeGluconeogenesis
CYP activity
Urea synthesis
Rat (monolayer culture post-thawing)Not availableProtein synthesis[61]
HumanStorage in liquid nitrogenConjugation and secretion of biliary acids[75]
Human, rat, rabbit, dog and monkeySlow freezing protocolCYP activity[77]
Phase 2 enzymes
Human, rat and mouseSlow freezing protocolPhase 2 enzymesPhase 1 enzymes[78]
MonkeySlow freezing protocolLDH releasePhase 1 enzymes[79]
PlatingPhase 2 enzymes
HumanStoring at -80°CCytosolic enzymes: glutathione S-transferaseCYP activity[55]
RatSlow freezing protocolCYP induction[60]
HumanSlow freezing protocolCYP induction[80]
RatSlow freezing protocolCYP induction[81]
HumanNot availableCYP induction[82]
HumanNot availableCYP induction[83]